Chapter 29

CNS(Central nervous system): the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.

PNS(Peripheral nervous system): the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.

Somatic nervous system: part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements.

Autonomic nervous system: the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes.

Parasympathetic system: one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Sometimes called the rest and digest system, the parasympathetic system conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract.
Sympathetic system: one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system functions to regulate the body's unconscious actions. The sympathetic nervous system's primary process is to stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response.

Neuromuscular junction: chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is at the neuromuscular junction that a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.

Acetylcholine: Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells

Norepinephrine and epinephrine: Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the adrenal medulla and nervous system respectively. They are the flight/fight hormones that are released when the body is under extreme stress. During stress, much of the body's energy is used to combat imminent danger.

Synapse: a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

White matter: composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell projections (or axons), which connect various gray matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons.

Gray matter: Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

Cerebral cortex: the outer layer of the cerebrum (the cerebral cortex ), composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness.

Lobes of the brain

Llimbic system: include the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus. The amygdala is the emotion center of the brain, while the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories about past experiences.

Credits:

Created with images by brain_blogger - "Bartolomeo Eustachi: Peripheral Nervous System, c. 1722" • Double--M - "Central nervous system drawing circa 1900" • euthman - "Parasympathetic ganglion" • Dreaming in the deep south - "The Five Primary Kinetic Chains"

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