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脸书在国家控制的媒体贴上鉴别标签 【中英对照翻译】

作者:Mark Scott

消息来源: POLITICO 《政治人物》

翻译/简评:德妹

PR:小明

简评:

本篇报道了社交网络巨头脸书,在其平台将给国有媒体添加警示标签,以限制像中共国、俄罗斯等政府控制的媒体的言论导向。先前脸书首席执行官扎克伯格,为公司利益曾与中共关系密切,然因大势所趋和社会压力,他们也不得不选边站。然而,仅仅添加警示标签是远远不够的,只有认识到像中共这些独裁集权伪政权的危害性,让它们消失在地球上,才能还社交媒体一片净土!

Facebook slaps labels on state-controlled media amid anger over Trump’s posts

当川普的发文激起愤怒时,脸书给国家控制的媒体打上了标签

The social network said the move would boost transparency over which governments were behind online messages.

该社交网站表示,此举将提高政府在网络信息背后的透明度

Facebook has taken criticism over its treatment of U.S. President Donald Trump's content on its platform | Damien Meyer/AFP via Getty Images / Facebook对美国总统唐纳德-川普(Donald Trump)在其平台上的内容的处理方式受到了批评| Damien Meyer/AFP via Getty Images。

Facebook 因在其平台上对待美国总统川普的方式而受到批评

Facebook took steps Thursday to reduce the role of state-backed media outlets from Russia and China on its global platform amid controversy over how the social networking giant handled recent posts from Donald Trump.

社交网络巨头Facebook周四采取措施,减少俄罗斯和中共国政府支持的媒体在其全球平台上的参与。目前人们对该公司如何处理川普总统最近发布的帖子存在争议。

The company has faced a backlash from its employees for not adding warning labels to comments from the U.S. president linked to the ongoing violence across the country.

该公司因没有在与美国总统与全国各地持续的暴力事件有关的评论中添加警告标签而面临员工的强烈反对。

The tech giant said that it would now add labels to the Facebook pages of Russia Today, Sputnik, Xinhua News and the People's Daily, among others, warning people that these were state-controlled outlets. Other government-funded publishers that are run independently, such as the British Broadcasting Corporation, would not be included in the labeling, according to the company.

这家科技巨头表示,它将在《今日俄罗斯》(Russia Today)、《人造卫星》(Sputnik)、《新华社》(Xinhua News)和《人民日报》(People's Daily)等网站的Facebook页面上添加标签,警告人们这些网站是国有媒体。该公司表示,其他政府资助的独立运营的出版商,如英国广播公司(British Broadcasting Corporation),将不包括在添加警告标签的媒体中。

Nathaniel Gleicher, Facebook's head of cybersecurity policy, told POLITICO that further labels would be added to all ads bought on the global platform by these organizations, as well to their nonpaid posts viewed in the United States from each outlet's Facebook pages.

Facebook网络安全政策主管纳撒尼尔·格莱谢尔(Nathaniel Gleicher)告诉POLITICO网站,这些机构在这个全球平台上购买的所有广告,以及它们在美国通过Facebook页面观看的免费帖子,都将被添加更多标签。

From later this summer, Facebook would also stop state-controlled media organizations from Russia, China and elsewhere from buying ads in the U.S. ahead of November's presidential election. The company would not provide a date for when it would start banning these paid-for messages, though these outlets have bought few ads targeting the U.S., according to a review of Facebook's transparency tools.

从今年夏天晚些时候开始,Facebook还将禁止俄罗斯、中共国和其他国家的国有媒体在11月总统大选前在美国购买广告。该公司没有透露何时开始禁止发布这些付费信息,虽然根据脸书的透明度审查工具的报告,这些网站已经购买了少量的广告来对付美国。

“从过去两周发生的事情来看,这与Facebook首席执行官的说法有出入”——数字取证研究实验室主任Graham Brookie。

"If we see any of these entities engaging in deceptive behavior, we will take them down," said Gleicher, who admitted he had yet to find such activity aimed at undermining the upcoming U.S. vote. "People must understand who is behind the arguments that they are seeing."

格莱谢尔说: “如果我们看到任何这些实体从事欺骗行为,我们就会把他们揪下来。”他承认,他还没有发现旨在破坏即将到来的美国大选的活动。“人们必须明白,他们看到的这些争论的背后是谁。”

The move is unlikely to quell criticism of how Facebook has handled recent posts from the U.S. president, which many people argued were fomenting violence against protestors who had taken to the streets in anger at the death of George Floyd in the custody of U.S. law enforcement.

这一举动不太可能平息人们对Facebook如何处理美国总统最近发布的帖子的批评。许多人认为,这些帖子煽动了针对抗议者的暴力,而这些抗议者也因为对美国执法机构拘捕弗洛伊德的愤怒而将暴力带到了街头。

Twitter, its smaller social networking rival, posted warning labels to a number of Trump's tweets which the company said were "glorifying violence." But Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook's chief executive, refused to take similar action, and has repeatedly defended himself by claiming that it is not the responsibility of his company to police political speech.

其规模较小的社交网络竞争对手Twitter在川普的一些推文上贴了警告标签,称这些推文“美化暴力”。但Facebook首席执行官马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)拒绝采取类似行动,并一再为自己辩护,声称监督政治言论不是他的公司的责任。

State-controlled media 国有媒体

By taking aim at state-controlled media outlets — the organizations that will have warning labels added to their Facebook pages include ones from Russia, China, North Korea and Iran — the company is trying to dampen the role they can play in pushing potentially false information to Facebook's 2.2 billion users worldwide.

通过瞄准国家控制的媒体——这些机构的Facebook页面会被贴上警告标签,,其中包括来自俄罗斯、中共国、朝鲜和伊朗的网页——该公司正试图削弱它们在向Facebook全球22亿用户推送潜在虚假信息方面可能发挥的作用。

In recent days, the likes of Russia Today, China's Xinhua News and Iran's PressTV have all run articles and videos of the U.S. protests to their millions of online followers on Facebook, though these organizations have not yet pushed outright falsities on the network. Still, European and U.S. officials have repeatedly warned these government-controlled outlets, particularly those backed by the Kremlin, have pushed narratives aimed at undermining Western democracies.

最近几天,"今日俄罗斯"、中共的新华社和伊朗的新闻电视台等都在Facebook上向其数百万在线粉丝刊登了有关美国抗议活动的文章和视频,尽管这些机构还没有在网络上公然发布谎言。不过,欧洲和美国官员还是一再警告这些由政府控制的媒体,特别是那些得到克里姆林宫支持的媒体,一直在宣传旨在破坏西方民主的言论。

Last year, for instance, Facebook removed more than 350 pages which had portrayed themselves as independent media organizations, but were linked to employees of Sputnik, the Kremlin-backed outlet. These deleted pages had pushed messages critical of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization — a regular target for Russian media.

例如,去年Facebook删除了350多个页面,这些页面自称是独立媒体机构,但与克里姆林宫支持的Sputnik网站的员工有关联。这些被删除的页面发布了批评北大西洋公约组织的信息,而北约组织是俄罗斯媒体经常攻击的目标。

"They're labeling something," said Graham Brookie, director of The Atlantic Council's Digital Forensics Research Laboratory, who tracks misinformation and was consulted about Facebook's new approach to state-backed outlets. "From what has happened in the last two weeks, that is a departure from what the Facebook chief executive has been saying."

“他们在给某些东西打标签,”大西洋理事会(Atlantic Council)数字取证研究实验室主任格雷厄姆表示。他一直在追踪虚假信息,在关于脸书处理国家控制的媒体方面接受了咨询。“从过去两周发生的事情来看,这与Facebook首席执行官一直以来的说法大相径庭。”

When asked why Facebook would allow these organizations to use its network if there were concerns about deceptive behavior, Gleicher, the Facebook executive, said it was not the company's role to ban these outlets, but to provide greater transparency on who was behind them.

当被问及如果担心这些组织的欺骗行为,Facebook为什么还是会允许它们使用其网络时,Facebook高管Gleicher表示,该公司的职责不是禁止这些信息发布渠道,而是提供更大的透明度,以了解谁在背后支持他们。

A warning label will be added to any post from these outlets' Facebook pages that is shared by individuals across the network. But a label will not be added to similar articles or videos that people add directly to their own Facebook pages. State-controlled media outlets can appeal to have these labels removed.

这些媒体在Facebook上发布的任何帖子都将被贴上警告标签。但人们直接添加到自己的Facebook页面上的类似文章或视频不会被添加标签。国家控制的媒体机构可以申诉移除这些标签。

"This is about actors' identification and transparency," Gleicher said. "We see the problem and challenge with state-controlled media entities around the world."

"这有关社交媒体使用者的识别和透明度," Gleicher说。"我们看到了世界各地国家控制的媒体实体带来的问题和挑战。"

Facebook is scrambling to strengthen its digital protections ahead of this year's U.S. presidential vote after foreign governments, particularly Russia, were accused of meddling in the 2016 vote by the country's intelligence agencies. The European Commission also said the Kremlin had targeted last year's European Union parliamentary vote with misinformation, though Brussels has provided little evidence to substantiate those claims.

在外国政府特别是俄罗斯政府被美国情报机构指责干预2016年美国总统大选之后,Facebook正忙于在今年美国总统大选之前加强其数字信息保护。欧盟委员会(European Commission)还表示,克里姆林宫针对去年欧盟议会投票提供了虚假信息,尽管布鲁塞尔几乎没有提供证据来证实这些说法。

U.S. President Donald Trump | Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

Gleicher acknowledged the upcoming U.S. election would likely again be targeted by foreign actors, though he said that Facebook had become better at both detecting and removing this activity before it reached voters. The company has taken down a slew of inauthentic activity — both aimed at the U.S. and elsewhere — in the last 12 months.

格莱谢尔承认,即将到来的美国大选可能会再次成为外国社交媒体用户的攻击目标。他说,在这些活动影响到选民之前,Facebook已经在检测和取缔这些活动方面做得更好。在过去的12个月里,该公司已经抵制了一系列针对美国和其他地区的虚假信息宣传活动。

Still, misinformation experts warned that domestic American groups, many of which have learned lessons from Russia's involvement in the 2016 presidential vote, may play a greater role in November to push false claims than overseas groups. Facebook's announcement about labeling state-controlled media would not touch such home-grown activity.

尽管如此,虚假信息专家警告称,美国国内组织在11月发布虚假信息方面可能比海外组织发挥更大的作用。许多美国国内组织已经从俄罗斯参与2016年总统大选中汲取了教训。Facebook关于给国家控制的媒体贴上标签的声明不会触及这种本土活动。

"It's a step in the right direction," Laura Rosenberger, a senior fellow at The German Marshall Fund of the United States, a think tank in Washington, D.C. "However, this step is a drop in the bucket in terms of what we need to be seeing in how state-backed media is weaponizing information."

"这是朝着正确的方向迈出的一步,"位于美国华盛顿的德国智库马歇尔基金的高级研究员劳拉-罗森伯格说,"然而,当那些国家支持的媒体将信息武器化时,我们也需要采取措施,而这一步只是杯水车薪。"

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】