The quote "By Sinel’s death I know I am Thane of Glamis" (1.3.71) proves that Macbeth is a protaganist of high estate, because he's a thane.
"I have no spur to prick the sides of my intent, but only vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself" (1.7.25-27) proves that Macbeth has a tragic flaw, which is ambition.
"Ay, in the catalogue you go for men, as hounds and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, curs, shoughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves are clept all by the name of dogs." (3.1.92-94) shows that Macbeth feels a strong sense of urgency for Banquo to be killed.
When Macbeth says "Then live, Macduff; what need I fear of thee?" (4.1.82) he is misinterpreting when the witches say "none of woman born shall harm Macbeth." He thinks that he is invincible and nobody can overcome him.
"The castle of Macduff I will surprise, seize upon Fife, give to th’ edge o’ th’ sword his wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls that trace him in his line." (4.1.150-154) Is when Macduff and his family are murdered because Macbeth feels threatened by them, even though he was already told that Macduff couldn't harm him.
Lady Macbeth dies, which leaves Macbeth isolated and alone. Which means that he will have to face the consequences of his actions by himself. Macbeth says "She should have died hereafter. There would have been a time for such a word" once he hears of Lady Macbeths death. He wishes that he would've been able to talk to her about his actions before she died.
"Is words which advances the war" (5.4.21) represents Malcolm and Macduff are bringing the war close to Macbeth and bringing the tragedy to a conclusion.
Macbeth finally realizes his tragic flaw, but by now it is too late. He says "Accursèd be that tongue that tells me so, for it hath cowed my better part of man!" His manly spirit was ruined.
"Th’ usurper’s cursèd head. The time is free." (5.8.55) represents Macbeth dying.
"Hail, King! for so thou art." (5.8.54) means that Malcolm is king now and everything is different than it used to be.