"... it is a principle of his (Mathew Pocket) that no man who was not a true gentleman at heart, ever was, since the world began, a true gentleman in manner. He says, no varnish can hide the grain of the wood; and the more varnish you put on, the more the grain will express itself" (140-141).
Through Mather Pocket, Dickens is telling the reader his views about gentlemen. He is saying that you cannot create a gentleman with superficial training. A gentleman can only be a person who has a generous and noble heart. If a person is not caring or kind, no matter how much training they go though, they will never become a true gentleman. According to Dicken's definition, Pip is has never been and will never become genuine gentleman. Before receiving his training, Pip acted pompous and like he was better than anyone else. On the other hand, Joe is a true gentleman according to Dicken's definition. Even thought he is not fancy and does not have great manners, he has a warm, generous, and noble heart.
"So," said Estella, "I must be taken as I gave been made. The success is not mine, the failure is not mine, but the two together make me" (240).
In this passage, Estella is explaining how a person cannot be what they were not made to be. People grow up the way they do because of their environment. The way they are raised has extreme impact on the way they turn out. Miss Havisham raised Estella to be a heartless girl and that is what she grew up to be. When Miss Havisham asked Estella to show affection, told her that she was raised to be cold so now Miss Havisham has to accept her the way she is.
I would not have gone back to Joe now, I would not have gone back to Biddy now, for any consideration: simply, I suppose, because my sense of my own worthless conduct to them was greater than every consideration. No wisdom on earth could have given me the comfort that I should have derived from their simplicity and fidelity; but I could never, never, never, undo what I had done. (254)
At the end of the second part of Great Expectations, Pip finds out that his benefactor is the convict that he helped when he was young, not Miss Havisham. He realizes that it was never Miss Havisham's plan to make him a gentleman so that he would be suitable for Estella. The only reason he so greatly wanted to become a gentleman was to be be with Estella, so when he realizes that will never happen, he regrets leaving his family because it was all for nothing. He is so ashamed of his actions that he cannot go back now and he feels awful for the choices he made, that can never be undone.