Boxer Rebellion By: HOllie leonard

  • Empress Dowager Cixi: Was the backing of the conservative Manchu officials, revitalized the Boxer after they were defeated by Yuan Shikai in 1899.
  • The Boxers are:
  • -the "Society of Harmonious Fists"
  • -Had links with earlier anti-Qing secret societies, but by the late 1890s they had become pro-Qing and anti-foreign militias
  • -Emerged in Shandong province
  • Yuan Shikai suppressed the Boxers in December 1899, but by 1900 the Empress Dowager, Cixi, and reactionary Manchu officials endorsed them
  • The Boxers went towards Beijing and demonstrated their hatred of foreign intervention by killing Christian missionaries and their converts and destroying railways and telegraph lines.
  • Boxer Rebellion took place in 1900-1901
  • The effect of the failure of the Boxer Rebellion
  • -Qing court had to pay 450 million Taels; A two year ban on the importation and manufacture of armaments; Forts could not be rebuilt, officials were to be punished, memorials had to be erected, the examination system was abolished, foreign troops were stationed indefinitely in Beijing/other places to protect Western interests
  • Other consequences of the Boxer Rebellion
  • - Further alienation of provincial gentry (Han Chinese)
  • - Proto-Nationalism (Beginnings of Nationalism)
  • - Undermined legitimacy of Manchu/Qing Court
  • Infringement of several articles in their constitution compromised China's power of self-defense
  • Treaty of Tientsin: enacted in 1858, it allowed the propagation of Christian missionaries in China.
  • Conventions of Peking: In 1860, these allowed missionaries to buy land for the construction of churches.
  • Opium Wars (1839-1860): The Opium Wars created a depressant effect on the native economy
  • Ad valorem custom duties: Influx of foreign imports after Opium War with a fixed 5 percent ad valorem custom duties were cheaper than domestic goods.
  • :Taiping Rebellion:1850-64. Famine and starvation grew widespread during the Taiping period, increasing the hardships of the common people
  • Hatred towards Taipings evolved into blaming the foreigners, which developed into an anti-Christian ideology.
  • China's trade deficit: In 1899, China suffered a trade deficit of 69 million taels and a governmental budgetary imbalance of 12 million taels
  • lead the court to increase taxes and encourage provincial contributions, placing a larger burden on the people who sought alleviation in banditry and secret societies
  • Yellow River Flooding: Yellow River shifted course from Honan to Shantung in 1852, flooded frequently after 1882, and broke loose in 1898 affecting villages in Shantung
  • Droughts: Severe drought affected North China, including Peking, in 1900
  • Blaming foreigners: Accused of "damaging the dragon's vein" with the construction of railways and letting out the "precious breath" of the mountains with the opening of mines
  • Anglo-German agreement: (October 16, 1900) → Signatories would refrain from seizing territory in China
  • Open Door Policy: (July 3, 1900) → Securing equal trade in China with all parts of the world
  • GRINCHES (Causes of Boxer Rebellion)
  • G: Geomancy and superstition
  • R: Resurgence of Manchu and conservative influence
  • I: I-ho chu'an (Righteous and Harmonious Fists)
  • N: Natural calamities
  • C: Christian disruption\
  • H: Humiliation (in foreign wars, unequal treaties, Triple Intervention, Scramble for Concessions, 100 Days Reform, financial obligations, international embarrassment)
  • E: Economic imperialism (impact of treaties and tariff restrictions, putting local businesses out of business)
  • S: Supporters (Boxers attracted desperate farmers, factory workers, etc.)
  • Boxer Protocol Article 5: Prohibition of importation of arms
  • Boxer Protocol Article 8: Destruction of Taku and other forts
  • Boxer Protocol Article 7: Stationing of foreign troops in legation quarter
  • Boxer Protocol Article 9: Gave foreign powers right to deploy troops from Peking to the sea
  • Boxer Protocol Article 10: Suspended government examinations for five years (punishment to gentry, blatant interference with China's internal administration)
  • Foreign diplomatic corps (effect): Foreign ministers in Pekin organized themselves into powerful diplomatic corps (functioning above Manchu court like super-government)
  • Prince Duan (Tuan) (Zaiyi): One of the leaders of the Boxer Rebellion, Manchu prince and Qing statesman
  • Narrative: Hardship of life as a result of foreign economic domination
  • Opium War→ foreign imports
  • Foreign imports were fixed with a 5% ad valorem tax, making foreign products more affordable, leading a depression of the economy
  • Native weavers, textile manufacturers became bankrupt from how cheap foreign cotton cloth was→ unemployment
  • Famine and starvation→ transferred hatred towards foreigner
  • Expansion of foreign trade→ increased foreign domination of Chinese markets
  • Railway ruined traditional communication systems (bargemen, carters, innkeepers, businessmen were thrown out of work)→ country was bankrupt
  • Narrative: Natural calamities
  • Floods + draughts: The Yellow River flooded in 1882 and 1898Affected multiple provinces
  • Drought in 1900
  • Victims, superstitious scholars, and officials blamed calamities on foreigners who messed with the "dragon's vein" (angering the spirits) from constructing railways
  • Gentry held foreigners responsible for disrupting the fengshui of nature
  • Increased anger towards foreigners as a result of superstition
  • Narrative: Public anger over imperialism
  • Kang Yu-wei warned the National Protection Society in Peking about the possibility of China becoming a colony
  • Narrative: Antipathy toward Christianity
  • Threat to China's deeply ingrained roots of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism
  • Increased pace of foreign encroachment in 1897-98
  • Missionaries were protected under the flag, and while they garnered support from low social classes, they were resented by the strong and the proud
  • Treaty of Tientsin 1858 and Conventions of Peking allowed missionaries to rent and buy land for construction of churches
  • Missionaries offered converts monetary subsidies to gain support
  • Gained support from low social strata, who took advantage of such connections to evade the law
  • Men lived on the income of the church, which angered many
  • Provincial gentry saw Christianity as socially disruptive + disrespectful towards Chinese tradition and culture as they refused to honor traditional Chinese practices
Created By
Hollie Leonard
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