Galileo Galilei was an Intalian scientist from Pisa, Italy. He was kept under house arrest and died in 1642 at the age of 77, leaving a lot of discoveries that were carried on until now.
Galileo built new theories about astronomy like Jupiter had four moons, the sun had dark spots, and earth's moon had a rough uneven surface he wrote a book called "Starry messanger" , tracked the phases of Venus, most of all he discovered Neptune before two centuries before it was known. He even made the laws of motion. Also making the first pendulum clock, he was sure that the time it takes for a pendulum to swing back and forth does not depend on arc of the swing.
Impact on society
In 1632 he published "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" it talked about the ideas of Copernicus and Ptolemy only it made Galileo sound more of a Copernicus theory supporter so the pope forced Galileo to stand trial in Rome with inquisition. 1663 is when he stood the courts, they threatened him with torture to force him to read a signed confession that the Copernicus ideas was not true. He also destroyed Aristotle's theory that the moon and stars were made up of a pure, perfect substance.
Thought's impacting traditional beliefs in society
It is said that it scared the Catholic and Protestant leaders because his ideas went against church teachings and authority, they thought that if the people who went to the church believed in Galileo that they would wound up questioning the church and what they taught. Eventually in 1992 Catholic church finally believed he was right.
Quote: You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him find it within himself.
This means to me that you can't teach someone whatever it is, you can only set them on the right path to help them figure it out themselves.