Louis Desire Blanquart-Evrard
who are they?
- Frenchman born in August in the year 1802 and died in the year 1872, at only 70 years old.
- He became a photography student in the 1840's studying Calotype.
what are they known for?
- He became the first to publish the process of using Calotype in France.
- In 1850 he developed and introduced the Albumen Paper printing technique.
- He started the "Imprimerie Photographique", the first large scale printing company.
- He was known for publishing other famous artists work using his techniques.
- His process had the disadvantage of leaving a blank white sky and a grim, dark foreground, which led to some manipulations having to be made.
Camera and equipment used
Talbot made his first successful camera photographs in 1835 using paper sensitised with silver chloride, which darkened in proportion to its exposure to light. This early "photogenic drawing" process was a printing-out process, i.e., the paper had to be exposed in the camera until the image was fully visible. A very long exposure—typically an hour or more—was required to produce an acceptable negative. The calotype process produced a translucent original negative image from which multiple positives could be made by simple contact printing. This gave it an important advantage over the daguerreotype process, which produced an opaque original positive that could only be duplicated by copying it with a camera. Although calotype paper could be used to make positive prints from calotype negatives, Talbot's earlier silver chloride paper, commonly called salted paper, was normally used for that purpose. It was simpler and less expensive, and Talbot himself considered the appearance of salted paper prints to be more attractive. The longer exposure required to make a salted print was at worst a minor inconvenience when making a contact print by sunlight. Calotype negatives were often impregnated with wax to improve their transparency and make the grain of the paper less conspicuous in the prints.
The Albumen Printing technique
The albumen print, also called albumen silver print, was published in January 1847 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, and was the first commercially exploitable method of producing a photographic print on a paper base from a negative. It used the albumen found in egg whites to bind the photographic chemicals to the paper and became the dominant form of photographic positives from 1855 to the turn of the 20th century, with a peak in the 1860-90 period. During the mid-19th century, the carte de visite became one of the more popular uses of the albumen method. In the 19th century, E. & H. T. Anthony & Company were the largest makers and distributors of the Albumen photographic prints and paper in the United States
The process of the Albumen print
1. A piece of paper, usually 100% cotton, is coated with an emulsion of egg white (albumen) and salt (sodium chloride or ammonium chloride), then dried. The albumen seals the paper and creates a slightly glossy surface for the sensitizer to rest on.
2. The paper is then dipped in a solution of silver nitrate and water which renders the surface sensitive to UV light.
3. The paper is then dried in the absence of UV light.
4. The dried, prepared paper is placed in a frame in direct contact under a negative. The negative is traditionally a glass negative with collodion emulsion, but this step can be performed with a modern silver halide negative, too. The paper with negative is then exposed to light until the image achieves the desired level of darkness, which is typically a little lighter than the end product. Though direct sunlight was used long ago, a UV exposure unit is often used contemporarily because it is more predictable, as the paper is most sensitive to ultraviolet light.
5. A bath of sodium thiosulfate fixes the print’s exposure, preventing further darkening.
6. Optional gold or selenium toning improves the photograph’s tone and stabilizes against fading. Depending on the toner, toning may be performed before or after fixing the print.
Because the image emerges as a direct result of exposure to light, without the aid of a developing solution, an albumen print may be said to be a printed rather than a developed photograph.
- videos on youtube or vimeo would give you plenty of information on how to do this process, for instance;
Julia Margaret Cameron
- She was originally from India, born in the year 1815.
- She was a well known British Photographer who photographed celebrities of her time making some very famous portraits still recognised today.
- Surprisingly, her style wasn't as appreciated as it should have been.
- She chose to use a soft focus and to treat photography as an art.
- Because she manipulated her photos, it caused her to be viewed as "slovenly".
what are they known for?
- She was well known for her portraits of heroes of her time and her style of manipulating her images.
- Her work has influenced modern photographers, especially her closely cropped portraits. Her house, Dimbola Lodge, on the Isle of Wight is open to the public.
- She used techniques similar to this of Louis Desire Blanquart-Evrard.