Final Exam Tiffany Herrold

First Case- Vernonia vs. Acton

The Vernonia School District of Oregon adopted the Student Athlete Drug Policy which authorizes random urinalysis drug testing of its student athletes. James Acton, a student, was denied participation in his school's football program when he and his parents refused to consent to the testing.

I picked this case because often times students feel as though they have a right to deny drug testing which they can, they just become ineligible for that activity. This case impacts many schools because sports are one of the most common extracurricular activities. It is important for students to understand that as an athlete you are subject to certain testing which does not violate the 4th amendment.

As an elementary teacher this doesn't specifically apply to me, but I would make sure the student is aware that their rights are in no way being violated and that if they want to participate in the sport they have to take the test just like everyone else. Drugs can impact a students performance during sports and cause severe bodily damage to that player or opponents.

Diversity is important to remember when handling situations such as this. Something to remember is that urban, low income schools are going to be more at risk for drugs than a rural, small schools. If the schools institutes drug testing, all students are subject to it no matter their gender, race, or economic status.

To incorporate technology, teachers can use informative, interactive websites that explain how dangerous the use of drugs can be and how they influence the mind. Once students have studied the topic, they must group into teams and create a skit to enact how drugs effect people and the damage caused.

Being open with students and explaining that everyone is subject to drug testing, the effects of drugs, will help students understand why being drug free is beneficial and how it could make them a better athlete when drug free. Drug testing allows for early detection and intervention,students have a built-in reason to resist peer pressure, a well-known reason why kids experiment with drugs,schools are fulfilling their duty in promoting a safe and drug free environment, and it increases chances for students to have a successful future. By explaining upfront, students are less likely to feel as though their rights are being infringed upon. The use of technology and activities involved allow students to visually see the mental and physical impact of drug usage.

Second Case - Roberts v. Madigan

Adams County School District and alleged that the school district had violated his rights under the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment by ordering him to remove the Bible from the classroom library, to not read his Bible in the classroom during school hours and to keep his Bible off his desk during school hours. Considering these factors in light of the environment of a fifth-grade classroom, the district court properly concluded that the books had the primary effect of advancing religion. When viewed from the eyes of the children in Mr. Roberts' class, the placement of the two books in the class library, the placement of Mr. Roberts' Bible on his desk, and Mr. Roberts' reading of the Bible during the reading period provided a crucial symbolic link between government and religion."

As a teacher, it is crucial to keep religion a private matter when at school. While students may practice religious beliefs as long as it isn't causing a disruption, teachers must make sure that they are not advancing their own personal practices on students. In my classroom I will never keep religious material unless it has been approved and is associated with specific curriculum.

I will respect other cultures in order to show students that we all have a right to our own beliefs. While you can't teach religion, you can teach about cultures, how people may look differently from different regions, how their clothing may look differently, and how people come in many different appearances. This teaches them about a wide range of diversity and if they choose to look into religion from those cultures, they are doing so on their own terms.

Assign each student a region to study. Students complete their research online using a site such as National Geographic for Kids. We can work with your school librarian to pull selected books on each region for students to check out. Create a poster to present information: Major beliefs, Sacred texts,Festivities and ceremonies,Clothing.

"Researchers have documented that students’ exposure to other students who are different from themselves and the novel ideas and challenges that such exposure brings leads to improved cognitive skills, including critical thinking and problem solving.Students can learn better how to navigate adulthood in an increasingly diverse society, a skill that employers value if they attend diverse schools."


Deborah Mayer worked for one year as a probationary elementary-school teacher in Monroe County, Indiana. When the school district did not renew her contract for a second year, Mayer filed this suit maintaining that the school system let her go because she took a political stance during a current-events session in her class, thus violating the first amendment. The district court granted summary judgment to the defendants, so we must accept Mayer's version of events-which is that she answered a pupil's question about whether she participated in political demonstrations by saying that, when she passed a demonstration against this nation's military operations in Iraq and saw a placard saying “Honk for Peace”, she honked her car's horn to show support for the demonstrators. Some parents complained, and the school's principal told all teachers not to take sides in any political controversy. Mayer believes that this incident led the school system to dismiss her; we must assume that this is so.

From reading this case, it is important not to take sides in anything political. It is important to keep a neutral stance and leave opinions to the students. Personal beliefs on such matters should not be spoken because just as in this case not all parents may agree with your views. If you are going to discuss sides, talk about both sides of the issue.

I will let students form their own opinions and beliefs and by doing so, I feel as though I'm allowing for diversity and an inclusiveness environment. When students are curious about topics that relate in a sensitive matter, this is a great opportunity to allow them to use technology and media in order to explore the issue. This keeps the teachers opinions from being spoken and instead students can be provided with facts. Students are: given equal importance to conflicting views and opinions; presented all information and opinion as open to interpretation, qualification and contradiction; be provided with a classroom climate in which all pupils are free to express sincerely held views without fear.

A consideration of the issues surrounding the teaching of controversial issues serves only to underline the importance of good citizenship education from an early age. If children become accustomed to discussing their differences in a rational way in the primary years, they are more likely to accept it as normal in their adolescence.

Citizenship education helps to equip young people to deal with situations of conflict and controversy knowledgeably and tolerantly. It helps to equip them to understand the consequences of their actions, and those of the adults around them. Pupils learn how to recognize bias, evaluate argument, weigh evidence, look for alternative interpretations, viewpoints and sources of evidence; above all to give good reasons for the things they say and do, and to expect good reasons to be given by other


Case one

Case two

Case three


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