Spain the ancient pit stop
Before Spain became one of the most powerful civilizations in the world it was known as a pit stop before traveling into the Mediterranean Sea. It was in a key location and also no one actually owned the land of Spain.Main factors of Spain in the old days was that Spain was a great place to repair, trade, and to refuel. All of these were very important for trades all over the world
The first people to technically own the land of Spain were called the Iberos. These people ruled Spain for a while until the Celtiberos or also known as the Celtas invaded Spain. The Celtas were the first people to ever invade Spain. After many disputes the Celtas took the western part of Spain while the Iberos took the eastern part of Spain. In doing so the Celtiberos were known as the first civilization in Spain.
The romans are coming
At this period of time Rome was the biggest civilization in the world. Since Rome wanted to continue to be a super power Rome had to constantly expand. In order to expand its empire Rome went to Spain to take it over. While the Romans invaded Spain they decided to kill everyone they saw to easily take over Spain. While they were there the Romans exhausted all of the resources in Spain. Rome fell in 409 A.D which ended occupation in Spain.
After the rule of Rome they left behind lots of things too. They left things such as the Segovia aqueduct and the Meridian Coliseum which can still be visited today in Spain.
A different type of goth
After the fall of Rome the Germanic Visigoths took over Spain. They were very barbaric people and killed people that didn't agree with them.
While the Visigoth people were still ruling Spain Arabs, Berbers, Syrian, and North Africans decided to leave their homelands due to religious persecution. They invaded the peninsula in 711 A.D easily defeating the Visigoth Kingdom conquering nearly all of the peninsula. They were called the Moors.
There were lots of fighting between the Christian kingdoms in the north of peninsula and Muslim kingdoms who controlled the South. Muslim Spain called “Al Andalus” in Arabic.
Toledo City of Tolerance
In this city Jews, Muslims, and Christians were all welcomed. They had synagogues, Church Cathedrals, and Arab architecture. All three religions are still evident in the city today.
Moors had divided into small kingdoms. The last Moorish King in Granada was defeated in January of 1492.
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla were married in 1462. They united the Christian Kingdoms against the Moors. Solidified their power through religion and military success. Ended Reconquista by defeating Moors in Granada in 1492.
The spanish inquisition
1492; Last Moorish king defeated; all Muslims remaining in Spain forced to leave or convert to Christianity. 1502; Given the success against the Muslims, it is now decided that all Jews need to leave Spain or convert to Christianity. But how do we know they’ve converted? We interrogate and torture them until they confess-or put them on trial and later execute (or burn) them!
Juana, daughter of Fernando and Isabel. Marries Felipe (el Hermoso) of the powerful Habsburg family. Juana known as La Loca” Legend has it that when Felipe died, she carried his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the corpse of the dead king.
Carlos I 1516-1556
Son of Juana la Loca and Felipe el Hermoso. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Austria/ Germany Under his rule, Spanish Empire grew rapidly - Conquistas of Incas, Aztecs. Gold, silver flooded into Spain from Americans. Along with new crops: corn, potatoes, fruits.
Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to Subsidize the many religious war he was fighting across Europe. Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism as it fought to stop the spread of the protestant reformation across europe. He passed on this legacy to his son Felipe II
Felipe II: Family Feud
Continued wars against Protestants. In 1554, married Mary Taylor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, but there was no son and the Protestant Elizabeth I come to power in England. Annexed Portugal, Dutch declare independence from Spain: starts war involving England. 1588: Spain’s Invincible Armada defeated by England
La Leyenda Negra
Known as black legend. So powerful it was said that he would even eat a baby to protect from revolts (myth).
Painter from Greece, his real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos. Traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial. Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him.El Greco moves to Toledo and hits the big time.
More Habsburg Kings
Felipe II is succeeded by his own son, the aptly named Felipe III. Felipe III dies and his son takes the throne. Guess what his name was? Yep, Felipe IV reigns from 1621-1665. Felipe IV reigns over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish History: The Siglo de Oro.
Sigle de Oro
Literature, Drama, Art. La vida es sueño by Pedro Calderon de la Barca. Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina. Character of Don Juan introduced-image of “Latin Lover” created.
End of the Hasburgs
Felipe IV’s son, Carlos II is known as “ El Hechizado” (“ the Bewitched”). He died in 1700, leaving no heir to ascend to the throne of Spain
War of Spanish Successor pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. War ends in 1713, with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today
Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court. Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state based in the Neoclassical ideas of the enlightenment.
Grandson of Felipe V (son of Carlos III). Total incompetence. Dealing with Napoleon leads to use of lots of dynamite.
Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte removed from the throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence. Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy.
Fernando VII (1814-1833)
Son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon's troops. Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812. Died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel.
More Bourbon Troubles
Country is divided on having a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”. Isabel reigns until 1868. Isabel rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. The Glorious Revolution removes Isabel II from power in 1868. A short lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873. The first Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873. It ends in 1874.
Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country. Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.
The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. They set up a new progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from State, and creates public schools
Can’t we all just get along?
The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church, and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on. Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, faster.
Civil War - Francisco Franco
General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War. Francisco's fascist troops are aided by force from Germany and Italy. Republican forces get very little help. Warends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning. Fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. Idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. Gender roles, religion, regionalism band, censorship. Exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists.
One more time
Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor. Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain. Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez the prime minister and he starts the Transition - giving back rights and takes away censorship.
A New Direction
2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action as promised was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. Under his government, Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-sex marriage (Franco rolls in grave). He won re-election in 2008.
La Familia Real
As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.