Year of Crisis By:jordan Huffaker
Impact of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity- Albert Einstein offered startling new ideas on space, and time. Object moving near the speed of light—about 186,000 miles per second. Einstein’s idea, it is called the theory of relativity. Operating according to absolute laws of motion and gravity.
Influence of Freudian Psychology- Sigmund Freud were as revolutionary. Freud treated patients with psychological problems. He called the irrational part of the mind the unconscious. 1920s, Freud’s theories had developed widespread influence.
Literature in the 1920s- Brutality of World War I caused philosophers and writers to question accepted ideas about reason and progress. Expressed doubts about traditional religious beliefs. Creating disturbing visions of the present and the future. Irish poet. William Butler Yeats conveyed a sense of dark times.
Writers Reflect Society’s Concerns- Horror of war made a deep impression on many writers. Books feature people caught in threat books feature people caught in threatening situations. Irish-born author James Joyce gained widespread attention. Joyce broke with normal sentence structure and vocabulary in a bold attempt to mirror the workings of the human mind.
Thinkers React to Uncertainties- Thinkers turned to the philosophy known as existentialism. Existentialists believed that there is no universal meaning to life.
Revolution in the Arts- Began in the prewar period, they evolved after the war.
Artists Rebel Against Tradition- Expressionist painters like Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky used bold colors and distorted or exaggerated forms. Down into different parts with sharp angles and edges. Several views were depicted at the same time. Surrealism, an art movement that sought to link the world of dreams.
Composers Try New Styles- Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg rejected traditional harmonies and musical scales. popular musical style called jazz emerged in the United States.
Women’s Roles Change- Their work in the war effort was decisive in helping them win the right. After the war, women’s suffrage became law in many countries, including the United States, Britain, Germany, Sweden, and Austria. Margaret Sanger and Emma Goldman risked arrest by speaking.
Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment- 1920, the world’s first commercial radio station—KDKA in Pittsburgh. Every major city had stations broadcasting news, plays. Cuba to Japan, produced movies. In Europe, film was a serious art form. King of Hollywood’s silent screen was the English-born Charlie Chaplin. Well-being of all major nations, especially the United States.
Postwar Europe- The Great War left every major European country nearly bankrupt. Europe’s domination in world affairs declined after the war.
Unstable New Democracies- First of the new governments was formed in Russia in 1917. However, within months it had fallen to a Communist dictatorship. Most European nations had democratic governments. For generations, kings and emperors had ruled Germany and new nations formed from Austria-Hungary. World War I, the large number of political parties effective government difficult. Coalition government, or temporary alliance of several parties.
The Weimar Republic- Weimar Republic, it was named after the city where the national assembly met. Weimar government, not their wartime leaders, for the country’s defeat caused by the Versailles Treaty.
Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany- Germans had simply printed money.steadily lost its value burdened with heavy reparations payments to the Allies. For example, in Berlin a loaf of bread cost less than a mark in 1918. As a result, many Germans questioned the value of their new democratic government.
Attempts at Economic Stability- Inflation thanks largely to the work of an international committee. German currency and strengthen its economy. Put into effect in 1924, the Dawes Plan helped slow inflation. German factories were producing as much as they had before the war.
Efforts at a Lasting Peace- 1925, the two ministers met in Locarno, Switzerland, with officials from Belgium, Italy, and Britain. In 1928, the hopes raised by the “spirit of Locarno” led to the Kellogg-Briand peace pact. Unfortunately, the treaty had no means to enforce its provisions. The League of Nations, the obvious choice as enforcer, had no armed forces. The refusal of the United States to join the League also weakened it.
Financial Collapse- 1920s, American economic prosperity largely sustained the world economy. If the U.S. economy weakened, the whole world’s economic system.
A Flawed U.S. Economy- The richest 5 percent of the population received 33 percent of all personal income in 1929. As more workers lost their jobs, families bought even fewer goods. During the 1920s, overproduction affected American farmers as well. Unable to sell their crops at a profit, many farmers could not pay off the bank loans that kept them in business. Danger signs of overproduction by factories and farms should have warned people against gambling on the stock.
The Stock Market Crashes- New York Stock Exchange, optimism about the booming U.S. economy showed in soaring prices for stocks. Down payment and borrowed the rest from a stockbroker. In September 1929, some investors began to think that stock prices were unnaturally high. They started selling their stocks, believing the prices would soon go down. Prices plunged to a new low on Tuesday, October 29.
The Great Depression- Great Depression did not causes the stock market to crash. 1932, factory production had been cut in half. Many farmers lost their lands when they could not make mortgage payments.
A Global Depression- The collapse of the American economy sent shock waves around the world. American market for European goods dropped sharply as the U.S.. Many countries that depended on exporting goods to the United States. This contributed further to the economic downturn. Unemployment rates soared. 65 percent world wide trade dropped.
Effects Throughout the World- Germany and Austria were particularly hard hit. In Asia, both farmers and urban workers suffered as the value of exports fell by half between 1929 and 1931. American products as sugar, beef, and copper dropped, prices collapsed.
Socialist Governments Find Solutions- Denmark, Sweden, and Norway also met the challenge of economic crisis successfully. In Sweden, the government sponsored massive public works projects that kept people employed and producing. Scandinavian countries raised pensions for the elderly and increased.
The World Confronts the Crisis- The Depression confronted democracies with a serious challenge to their economic and political systems. Each country met the crisis in its own way.
Britain Takes Steps to Improve Its Economy- British voters elected a multiparty coalition known as the National Government. It also lowered interest rates to encourage industrial growth. Britain avoided political extremes and preserved democracy.
France Responds to Economic Crisis- Britain, France had a more self sufficient economy. Nevertheless, by 1935, one million French workers were unemployed. The economic crisis contributed to political instability. Antidemocratic forces both in France and in other parts of Europe. Series of reforms to help the workers.
Recovery in the United States- Depression had begun, U.S. voters elected Franklin D. Roosevelt. March 4, 1933, the new president sought to restore Americans’ faith in their nation. program of government reform that he called the New Deal. Roosevelt and his advisers believed that government spending would create jobs and start a recovery. New Deal did eventually reform the American economic system.
Fascism’s Rise in Italy- Fascism militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Fascists believed that nations must struggling states were doomed to be conquered. In some ways, fascism was similar to communism. Fascists did not seek a classless society. Fascist parties were made up of aristocrats and industrialists.
Mussolini Takes Control- Rising inflation and unemployment also contributed to widespread social unrest. Benito Mussolini rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces. Fear of a workers’ revolt, he began to win support from the middle classes. October 1922, about 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome. King Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge of the government.
Il Duce’s Leadership- Government censors forced radio stations and publications to broadcast or publish only Fascist doctrines. Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union or Adolf Hitler in Germany.
Hitler Rises to Power in Germany- Adolf Hitler was a little-known political leader whose early life had been marked by disappointment. German army and was twice awarded the Iron Cross, a medal for bravery.
Hitler Becomes Chancellor- Nazis had become the largest political party by 1932. They advised President Paul von Hindenburg to name Hitler chancellor. Communists, the Nazis and their allies won a slim majority. In 1934, the SS arrested and murdered hundreds of Hitler’s enemies. Nazis quickly took command of the economy. Number of unemployed dropped from about 6 to 1.5 million in 1936.
The Führer Is Supreme- Wanted control over every aspect of German life. Conform to Nazi beliefs were burned in huge bonfires. He twisted the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche to support his use of brute force.
Other Countries Fall to Dictators- military forces and wealthy landowners joined. In Poland, Marshal Jozef Pilsudski seized power in 1926. Britain, France, and the Scandinavian countries did democracy survive. None asserted control with the brutality of the Russian Communists or the Nazis.
Japan Seeks an Empire- 1920s, the Japanese government became more democratic. Japan signed an international treaty agreeing to respect China’s borders.
Militarists Take Control of Japan- Japan remained prosperous, civilian government kept power. Mussolini or Hitler, the militarists made the emperor the symbol of state power. Hitler and Mussolini, Japan’s militarists extreme nationalists. Pacific empire that included a conquered China. Japan with raw materials and markets for its goods. Japan room for its rising population.
Japan Invades Manchuria- Japanese businesses had invested heavily in China’s northeast province, Manchuria. Japanese engineers and technicians began arriving in large numbers to build mines and factories. Japanese attack on Manchuria was the first direct challenge to the League of Nations. Posed the greatest threat to peace—Germany, Japan, and Italy. Japan ignored the protests and withdrew from the League in 1933.
Japan Invades China- Japanese forces swept into northern China. China’s army led by Jiang Jieshi was no match for the Japanese. Japanese troops killed tens of thousands of captured soldiers. Chinese guerrillas led by China’s Communist fight the Japanese in the conquered area.
European Aggressors on the March- League’s failure to stop the Japanese encouraged European Fascists. Italian leader Mussolini dreamed of building empire in Africa like those of Britain and France.
Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia- Ethiopians had successfully resisted an Italian attempt at conquest. Avenge that defeat, Mussolini ordered a massive invasion. Ethiopian emperor, Haile Selassie, urgently appealed to the League. Britain continued to let Italian troops and supplies pass. Mussolini in Africa, Britain and France hoped to keep peace in Europe.
Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty- Among its provisions, the treaty limited the size of Germany’s army. League’s failure to stop Germany from rearming convinced Hitler. It was also an important industrial area. British urged appeasement, giving in to an aggressor to keep peace. Hitler later admitted that he would have backed down if the French and British. Belgium were now open to attack from German troops. Hitler’s growing strength convinced Mussolini that he should seek an alliance. Germany, Italy, and Japan came to be called the Axis Powers.
Civil War Erupts in Spain- Democracies of Europe in the Spanish Civil War. Socialists, held office amid many crises. In July 1936, army leaders, favoring a Fascist-style government, joined General Francisco Franco in a revolt. The Western democracies remained neutral. Republican side. Early in 1939, Republican resistance collapsed.
Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace- France repeatedly made concessions, hoping to keep peace. dealing with serious economic problems as a result of the Great Depression. World War I had created a deep desire to avoid war.
United States Follows an Isolationist Policy- Isolationism, the belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided. Neutrality Acts. These laws banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war.
The German Reich Expands- Advisers his plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich the Germany empire. March 1938, Hitler sent his army into Austria and annexed it. France and Britain ignored their pledge to protect Austrian independence. People lived in the western border regions of Czechoslovakia. September 1938, Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland be given to Germany. The Czechs refused and asked France for help.
Britain and France Again Choose Appeasement- Munich Conference was held on September 29, 1938. France agreed that Hitler could take the Sudetenland. Appeasement policy and gloomily warned of its consequences. Hitler demanded that Poland return the former German port of Danzig. But appeasement had convinced Hitler that neither nation would risk war.
Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact- Soviet Union to join them in stopping Hitler’s aggression. Britain and France, he also bargained with Hitler. Once bitter enemies, Fascist Germany and Communist Russia publicly pledged never to attack one another. Axis Powers moved unchecked at the end of the decade, war appeared inevitable.