The Cell Emma Crowley

The Cell

Throughout this page, you are going to take a little tour through a cell and learn about all of the organelles necessary to make it all work.

Eukaryotic Animal Cell
Eukaryotic Plant Cell

The Nucleus

Structure

  • A sphere-shaped organelle
  • Contains: a nuclear membrane, chromosomes, nucleolus and cytoplasm
  • Only found in eukaryotic cells
  • The nucleus is bound by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope

Function

  • The nucleus contains the cells hereditary information because of the chromosomes in the nucleus
  • It controls cells growth, development and reproduction

Organisms

  • All eukaryotic cells have a nucleus
  • Eukaryotic cells include plants, animals, fungi and protists

Prolific in Any Organisms

  • Many cancer cells and viruses have many nuclei
  • Liver cells, muscle fibers and osteoclasts are all normal cells that have more than one nucleus

Diseases

  • Scientists have discovered that the nucleus has an effect on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's Disease

Interesting Facts

  • The nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered by scientists
  • Typically, the nucleus takes up about 10% of a cells volume

Ribosomes

Structure

  • Ribosomes float around in the cytoplasm or they attach to the endolplasmic reticulum
  • They are made up of RNA and proteins
  • Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells contain ribosomes, but the ones found in eukaryotic cells are larger

Function

  • Ribosomes assemble amino acids so specific proteins can be formed
  • The location of a ribosome determines what kind of protein it will make

Organisms

  • All organisms contain ribosomes
  • Ribosomes are essential to making proteins which are very important to organisms

Prolific in any Organisms

  • Ribosomes are essential to all organisms- and there is always many of them
  • A majority of ribosomes are found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum and floating around in the cytoplasm

Diseases

  • Ribosomal diseases typically occur because of a defect in the protein when the ribosome is being made
  • This can lead to a variety of disorders and diseases
  • Early onset Alzheimers has been linked to ribosomes because of the effect they have on RNA during protein synthesis

Interesting Fact

  • Some cells can hold up to almost a million ribosomes, but it is more common for them to have thousands

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Structure

  • Called rough ER because of the ribosomes that are attached to the outside making it rough
  • It is made up of many folded layers of membrane

Function

  • Rough ER has a large role in the synthesis of large, complex amino acids and proteins
  • The ribosomes attached to the rough ER make proteins

Organisms

  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is found in all eukaryotic cells
  • Ribosomes are also found in all eukaryotic cells, and endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes are almost like a package deal

Prolific in any Organisms

  • Cells that produce proteins typically have more rough ER then smooth ER
  • Even if a cell is not producing proteins, rough ER is still present
  • It is found in all eukaryotic organisms

Diseases

  • If there is a problem with the stress response of the endoplasmic reticulum, it has been known to be linked too diabetes and some neuroegenerative disorders

Interesting Fact

  • Rough endoplasmic retiulum is usually closer to the nucleus than smooth endoplasmic reticulum is

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Structure

  • Smooth ER is made up of a more tubular structure than rough ER
  • It is smooth on the outside because it is not covered in ribosomes
  • Smooth ER is pretty evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm

Function

  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is used as a storage organelle
  • It creates steroids and lipids and then stores them
  • It is also related to the metabolism of lipids
  • Also involved in the making of steroid horomones

Organisms

  • Just like rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is also found in all eukaryotic organisms

Prolific in any Organisms

  • Cells that produce lipids and steroids tend to have more smooth endoplasmic reticulum then rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • However, it is still found in all eukaryotic cels

Diseases

  • Problems with endoplasmic reticulum can lead to an increased risk of getting liver disease and sometimes even cancer

Interesting Fact

  • Smooth ER has a larger surface area, making for easier production of lipids

Golgi Apparatus

Structure

  • Made up of stacks of flattened membrane sacs, also known as cisternae
  • It is found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
  • Membrane layers look similar to that of endoplasmic reticulum

Function

  • The golgi apparatus is a packaging organelle
  • It modifies proteins made by the rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Involved in the transport of lipids throughout the cell
  • Helps create lysosomes

Organisms

  • The golgi apparatus is found in all eukaryotic organisms

Prolific in any Organisms

  • The golgi apparatus is found in all eukaryotic organisms.
  • It is more abundant closest to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus

diseases

  • There are 15 common congenital disorders related to the golgi apparatus and glycosylation

interesting fact

  • It was named after the scientist, Camillo Golgi, who discovered it in the year 1898

Mitochondria

strucutre

  • Mitochondria have 2 membranes: outer and inner
  • It is a double membrane bound organelle and it is rod shaped
  • The outer membrane is a smooth membrane made up of phospholipids and proteins
  • The inner membrane is a little more complex: it is folded many times and that is known as cristae

function

  • Main function of mitochondria if the production of energy
  • Helps maintain proper levels of concentration in calcium ions
  • Helps build certain parts of blood and hormones

organisms

  • All eukaryotic organisms contain mitochondria

prolific in any organisms

  • Fat and muscle cells typically have more mitochondria then other places in the body
  • This is because those muscles require a lot of energy

diseases

  • Mitochondrial Disease: occurs as a result of failure of mitochondria
  • The mitochondria does not produce the necessary energy to sustain life, resulting in: brain damage, and the failure of the heart, kidneys, muscles and endocrine and respiratory systems

interesting fact

  • Mitochondria have the ability to quickly change shape and move around the cell when nesessary

Chloroplast

structure

  • Chloroplast is a double membrane bound organelle
  • They have different shapes depending on what type of plant they are in
  • Chloroplast is clear in the center
  • The size of the chloroplast can also vary depending on the type of plant it is in

function

  • Most common function: make food for the plants through photosynthesis
  • The Calvin Cycle takes place on the stroma of the chloroplast
  • Is a key organelle for pathogen defense

organisms

  • Chloroplast is usually only found in plant cells
  • Plant cells need it to make food

prolific in any organisms

  • Chloroplast is prolific in any plants because all plants need it
  • However, a majority of chloroplast is found in the leaves of the plant

diseases

  • If there is a problem with the production of chloroplast then it could lead to the underproduction of food for the plants

interesting fact

  • The space inside a chloroplast is called the stroma

Flagellum

structure

  • Long, rod-like structure that is surrounded by an extension of the cell membrane
  • A hair-like structure
  • Have a core of 9 pairs of micro tubules surrounded by 2 central pairs of micro tubules

function

  • Most Common Function: Used for movement of the cell

organisms

  • Flagellum are found in algae, fungi and animals.
  • They are also found in prokaryotic bacteria

prolific in any organisms

  • In humans, flagellum are most commonly found in the windpipe. They are used to sweep mucus and dirt out of the lugs

diseases

  • Diseases of the flagellum in eukaryotic cells are very rare

interesting fact

  • The different kinds of flagellum (prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells flagella) have slightly different structures

Cillia

structure

  • Cilia are microscopic, hair-like structures
  • There is motile and non-motile cilia. Sometimes they function separately and sometimes they function together.
  • Each cilia has a micro tubular backbone

function

  • Cilia play a vital role in everyday human and animal development
  • Non-motile cilia act as sensory receptors for the cell, receiving signals from other nearby cells
  • Motile cilia have a waving and beating motion
  • Help move liquid past the surface of the cell

organisms

  • Cilia are usually only found in animal cells
  • They help with the vital functions of many organs, help us breath and help to propel sperm

prolific in any organisms

  • Cilia is prolific in many human organs
  • For example, in the kidneys, cilia send signal alerts to cells that there is a flow of urine

diseases

  • Anybody who has problems with the movement of cilia could end up with kidney issues and degeneration of retinas

interesting fact

  • Eukaryotic cilia are almost structurally identical to eukaryotic flagella

Lysosome

strucutre

  • A specialized vesicle that stores enzymes
  • A single lysosomes can hold many enzymes
  • Has an outer surface that is formed by a single membrane

function

  • Most Common Function: removal of waste from the cell
  • Storage of enzymes
  • They bond with particles foreign to the body, like bacteria, and kill them

organisms

  • Lysosomes are most commonly found in animal cells
  • This is because they are most commonly used for the removal of waste

prolific in any organisms

  • There are many lysosomes found in the kidney and liver
  • This is because those organs are commonly associated with waste

diseases

  • Lysosomal Storage Disease: when the lysosomes no longer correctly digest large molecules, leading to the build up of them in cells

interesting fact

  • The word "lysosome" is greek, "lysis" meaning destruction and "soma" meaning body

Food Vacuole

structure

  • Food vacuoles are fused to lysosomes
  • A membrane enclosed cell vacuole

function

  • They store food temporarily, until the organism needs it
  • The lysosomes fused to the food vacuole help with the digestion of the food

organisms

  • Food vacuoles are found in plants, animals, protists and fungi.

prolific in any organisms

  • You will be able to find food vacuoles more commonly is plants and animals
  • Animals have an abundance of food vacuoles

diseases

  • Danon Disease: can occur if there is a problem with the fusing of the vacuole an the lysosomes

Central Vaculoe

structure

  • A membrane-bound organelle that contains water and enzymes
  • Surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer
  • Usually the largest organelle in a plant cell

function

  • Holds materials and waste
  • Maintains the correct pressure within a plant cell
  • Provides structure and support for the cell
  • Storage of salts and nutrients

organisms

  • Central Vacuoles are found only in plant cells

prolific in any organisms

  • Prolific in all plant cells
  • The central vacuole can take up to 80% of the space in a cell

diseases

  • The vacuole could go into disease state- when that happens the vacuole could become toxic, leading to it shutting down

interesting fact

  • The central vacuole has pigments that help give flowers their colors

Works Cited

Information Websites

  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/can-a-cell-have-more-than-one-nucleus.html
  • http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/p/nucleus.htm
  • https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110201122353.htm
  • http://www.ducksters.com/science/biology/cell_nucleus.php
  • http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/ribosomes.html
  • https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/ribosomes/ribosomes.html
  • http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/23710.aspx
  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/rough-er-definition-function-structure.html
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17288551
  • http://bscb.org/learning-resources/softcell-e-learning/endoplasmic-reticulum-rough-and-smooth/
  • http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/golgi-apparatus.html
  • http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/mitochondria.html
  • http://themitochondria.weebly.com/fun-facts.html
  • http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/chloroplasts.html
  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/flagella-definition-structure-functions.html
  • https://www.britannica.com/science/flagellum
  • http://www.ciliopathyalliance.org/cilia/structure-and-function-of-cilia.html
  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/lysosome-definition-function-quiz.html
  • https://www.reference.com/science/function-lysosome-f5513debce62a24f
  • https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/lysosomal-storage-disorders/
  • http://lysosomescell.weebly.com/fun-facts.html
  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/food-vacuole-definition-function.html
  • http://organelleproblems.weebly.com/vacuole.html
  • https://www.reference.com/science/function-large-central-vacuole-plant-cells-22576d9ae40cb157

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