chapter 15 project

The ideas of Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud had an enormous impact on the

20th century. These thinkers were part of a scientific revolution as important as

that brought about centuries earlier by Copernicus and Galileo.

Einstein offered startling new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter. Scientists

had found that light travels at exactly the same speed no matter what direction it

moves in relation to earth. In 1905

Section two

In both human suffering and economic terms, the cost of World War I was immense.

The Great War left every major European country nearly bankrupt. In addition,

Europe’s domination in world affairs declined after the war.

was a new, militant political movement that emphasized

loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Unlike communism, fascism

had no clearly defined theory or program. Nevertheless, most Fascists shared

several ideas. They preached an extreme form of nationalism, or loyalty to one’s

country. Fascists believed that nations must struggle—peaceful states were

doomed to be conquered. They pledged loyalty to an authoritarian leader who

guided and brought order to the state. In each nation, Fascists

France and

Britain were preparing for war when Mussolini proposed a meeting of

Germany, France, Britain, and Italy in Munich, Germany.


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