Sedimentary rocks are types of rocks that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
There are various types of sedimentary rocks. They are found in places with cliffs and mountains.
Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed by the compaction and cementation of the fragments deposited usually by running water entering calm water. The fragments are deposited in horizontal layers called beds or strata.
These are formed when the minerals in the water settle and then the water evaporates, leaving behind the rock. Sedimentary rocks formed by this process are usually called monominerallic (composed of one mineral).
Formed from the remains of once living things. They are referred to as Bioclastic.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
There are two types of igneous rocks, intrusive and extrusive. "Intermediate and felsic igneous rocks show up along continental margins. Because igneous rocks form from the cooling of lava and magma, they can be found around areas where volcanic activity is or has been present."
Intrusive, or plutonic, igneous rocks form when magma cools slowly below the Earth's surface. Most intrusive rocks have large, well-formed crystals.
Extrusive igneous rocks form when magma reaches the Earth's surface a volcano and cools quickly.
Metamorphic rocks form at the core of mountains from the intense pressure and heat. As mountains erode away over time, these types of rocks can be found on the surface
Metamorphic rocks can commonly be found in mountain ranges, like the Himalayas, Alps and Rocky Mountains.