- The Whitman Massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon
- These Pioneers were called emigrants--people who leave their country--because they left the United States to go to Oregon.
- In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the journey from the United States to Oregon.
America Seeks It's Manifest Destiny
- Since Colonial times, many Americans had believed their Nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy
- Many believed that the Nation's mission was to spread freedom by setting the entire continent.
- In 1819 John Quincy Adams expressed that many Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the Pacific was as certain as the Mississippi River flowing to the Sea.
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
- Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
- In the 1844 Presidential election, James K. Polk, the Democratic nominee, supported this desire.
- Polk's Whig opponent, Henry Clay, did not take a strong position on the Oregon issue.
“How did Polk’s views differ from Clay’s in the 1844 election?”
- Polk's views differed from Clay's views in the 1844 election because they both had a different opinion.
- They both had disagreements.
Statehood for Florida and Texas - "How did Florida become a State?"
- Florida became a state when President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill.
- In 1845 Florida became the 27th State on March 3rd.
- But before it was a state, Florida's desire to enter the Union as a slave state caused some difficulties.
- When Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became a an American territory.
- In addition, small farms and cattle ranches dotted the region of Central Florida.
- Florida played a major role in the government and politics of the area.
"What caused the population of Florida to grow?"
- In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
- Enslaved people made up about one-half of Florida's population.
- Mexico controlled the land that is now called Texas.
- At the time, the non-Native American population of Texas was about 3,000.
- At first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas.
- The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
- The Texans did have brave leaders, however, including folk hero Davy Crockett, commander William B. Travis, and a tough Texan named Jim Bowie.
- For 13 long days, through several attacks, the defenders of Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire.
Texas Declares it's Dependence
- During the siege at the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
- Among them were a number of Tejanos, who were also unhappy with Mexican Rule.
The Lone Star Republic
- In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
- Mirabeau Lamar, who had fought at the Battle of San Jacinto, served as vice president.
- Andrew Jackson, however, refused their request.
Texas becomes a State
Annexed as the 28th state
- Southerners favored Texas annexation, but Northerners opposed admitting another slave state to the Union.
- John Tyler, who became the president in 1841, supported Texas annexation.
"Why did it take a long time for the United States to Annex Texas?"
Because Texas had represented another Slave State, but the nature of Texas society did not appeal to cultivate New Englanders.
"How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?"
The Santa Fe Trail benefited the New Mexico Territory because it was filled with some gold and riches. The city with the exotic name became the target of explorers and adventurers from the east who saw their glory there.
The New Mexico Territory
- In the early 1800's, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California Territories.
- It includes all of the land that is now the state of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
- Mexico won it's independence from Spain in 1821.
"How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of Mexico?"
William Alexander Becknell was an example of the type of 19th Century American who’s qualities of individualism, self-sufficency and determination helped tame the frontier-borderlands of the United States and made his reputation and his living doing so.
California's Spanish Culture
- Spanish Explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled in California in the 1700s.
- The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life.
- President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
- After Mexico refused to sell the lands, Polk planned to gain them through war.
- To justify a war, Polk hoped to get Mexico to strike first.
A War Plan
- Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals.
- His first plan was that the United States would drive Mexican force out of Texas.
- Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising.
- They were encouraged by American general John C. Fremont.
- Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
- Mexico gave the United States more that=n 500,000 square miles of territory, what are now states of territory.
"What did America gain from the Mexican War?"
America gained more than 500,000 square miles of territory what are now the states of California, Nevada, and Utah as well as most of Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
California and Utah - "How did the discovery of gold help California?"
The discovery of gold helped California because they became more wealthy than they were before, but the population also got bigger so that they could go gold digging.
California Gold Rush
- When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches.
- Those who arrived in 1849 were called forty-niners.
- The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios--Mexicans living in California--citizens of the United States.
The Life of a Forty-Niner
- As people rushed to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities.
- Most forty-niners had no experience in mining.
Gold Rush Society
- Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women.
- Lonely and suffering hardships, many even spent their free hours drinking, gambling, and fighting.
Economic and Political Progress
- The Gold Rush had lasting effects on California.
- Agriculture, shipping, and trade grew to meet the demand for food and other many goods, many people who had arrived looking for gold stayed to farm or run a business.
"How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?"
The Gold Rush was transforming California. Mormons or members of the Church were all building a new community and fulfilling their vision of the godly life.
A Religious Refuge in Utah
- While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in nearby Utah.
The Mormons Move On
- The founder of the Mormon Church was Joseph Smith, a New Englander living in western New York.
- Joseph Smith had said that he had received visions that led him to build a new church.
- Joseph began preaching Mormon ideas in 1830.
A Haven in the Desert
- About 12,000 Mormons made the trek in the largest single migration in American history.
- The Mormons' route became known as the Mormon Trail and served a valuable route to the western United States.
- At first, life was pretty difficult for the settlers, but the Mormons however, made desert flourish through hard work and determination.
"Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?"
The Mormons had to move from one place to another because they wanted to find a new and better place so that they could try to and build a brand new community to start over at.