HATSHEPSUT Pharaoh of egypt

Background and rise to Prominence:
  • Hatshepsut was born in Circa 1508 B.C. Hatshepsut was the elder of two daughters born to Thutmose I and his queen, Ahmes. Hatshepsut became queen of Egypt when she married her half-brother, Thutmose II, around the age of 12. Upon his death, she later took on the full powers of a pharaoh, becoming co-ruler of Egypt around 1473 B.C.
  • Hatshepsut fought to defend its legitimacy, pointing to her royal lineage and claiming that her father had appointed her his successor. She sought to reinvent her image, and in statues and paintings of that time, she ordered that she be portrayed as a male pharaoh, with a beard and large muscles. In other images, however, she appeared in traditional female regalia.
Historical context:
  • Hatshepsut was the longest reigning female pharaoh in Egypt, ruling for 20 years in the 15th century B.C. She is considered one of the Egypt's most successful pharaohs. She reigned peaceably, building temples and monuments, resulting in the flourish of Egypt.
  • She began having herself depicted in the traditional king’s kilt and crown, along with a fake beard and male body. This was not an attempt to trick people into thinking she was male; rather, since there were no words or images to portray a woman with this status, it was a way of asserting her authority.
  • Hatshepsut’s successful transition from queen to pharaoh was, in part, due to her ability to recruit influential supporters, and many of the men she chose had been favored officials of her father.
  • The queen died in early February of 1458 B.C. After her death, Thutmose III began a campaign to eradicate Hatshepsut’s memory. He destroyed or defaced her monuments, erased many of her inscriptions and constructed a wall around her obelisks.
Career:
  • Under Hatshepsut’s reign, Egypt prospered. Unlike other rulers in her dynasty, she was more interested in ensuring economic prosperity and building and restoring monuments throughout Egypt and Nubia than in conquering new lands also restored traditional Egyptian religion.
  • She built the temple Djeser-djeseru ("holiest of holy places"), which was dedicated to Amon and served as her funerary cult, and erected a pair of red granite obelisks at the Temple of Amon at Karnak, one of which still stands today.
Temple of Amon at Karnak
  • Hatshepsut also oversaw an immense period of building across Egypt and may be responsible for hundreds of grand buildings and statues, along with her architect Ineni. Like most pharaohs, she added buildings to the massive temple complex at Karnak, but also restored old temples there and had two obelisks erected there; at the time, they were the tallest in the world.
Hatshepsut's Temple
  • One of Hatshepsut's major achievements was expanding the trade routes of Ancient Egypt. Most notably was an expedition to the Land of Punt, which became a major trade partner supplying Egypt with gold, resin, wood, ivory, and wild animals. Scholars still debate the exact location of Ancient Punt, but many believe it to be roughly modern-day Somalia to Sudan.
Temple of Pakhet
  • Her Temple of Pakhet, a massive underground complex carved into a cliff wall. it was to formally shame the Hyksos people who had taken over Egypt years before. The Hyksos conquest interrupted traditional Egyptian culture and religion, which was never truly restored to their former glory until Hatshepsut.
Evaluation:
  • As the first female pharaoh of Egypt, Hatshepsut's Impact on society was quite a large one. Because she was female, but also a very successful ruler, she gave much empowerment to the women of Egypt. It was then thought that if a woman could rule a kingdom, then why couldn't she do anything else. This meant great popularity with her subjects.
  • Another positive impact she had was her promotion for religion in Egypt. Her approach to the culture of Egypt was incredible. She valued culture and built many monuments.
  • A negative impact she had on society was that she left the Egyptians believing that her son, Thutmose III was not eligible for throne until she died. Although she made him a co-ruler, he was extremely furious that when he came of age he was not given full supremacy. This meant that he wiped her name of all monuments and destroyed many too. Although this wasn't all Hatshepsut's fault, her actions meant that much of the rich Egyptian culture was ruined.
  • The Sphinx of Hatshepsut, portrays the queen with her own head but with the body of a lioness. It was one of six granite sphinxes that stood in Hatshepsut's, temple at Deir el-Bahri.
  • The five other sphinxes are believed to be smashed at the command of her son, Thutmose III, after her death.

Credits:

Created with images by Simon Matzinger - "After a day of work." • Jorge Lascar - "The Courtyard of Ramses II - Luxor Temple" • Jorge Lascar - "The remaining obelisk and the two 25m. statues of Ramses II - The entrance pylon - Luxor Temple" • Jorge Lascar - "The Courtyard of Ramses II - Luxor Temple" • Jorge Lascar - "Statue of Ramesses II with his daughter, Princess Bint-Anta between his legs flanks the second pylon" • Victoria Manzanal - "Hatshepsut Temple" • Jorge Lascar - "The Courtyard of Ramses II - Luxor Temple"

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