Southern Africa Pg. 377-396

Drakensberg Moutains
Landforms and Bodies of Water

1. The Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip is considered where two oceans meet.

2. Angola and South Africa are considered to be nearly the size of western Europe.

3. The country of Madagascar is the 4th largest island on the planet.


1. The northern plateau extends from Malawi across Zambia and Angola. They are largely forested.

2. Kalahari desert is a very big sand covered plateau that sits 3,000 feet above sea level. That is very high for a desert.

3. Another land form is the Drakenberg Mountains. They follow the Coast line of South Africa.

Major rivers

1. first is the Zambezi. it stretches for 2,200 miles, it is the regions longest river. it plunges over the Victoria falls. it is twice the width of Niagara falls.

2. Another one is the Orange river. It is Southern Africa's second longest river. it marks the southern boundary of the Kalahari desert.

3. the third river is the Limpopo river. it is the third longest river in South Africa. it flows with the arc of South Africa.


Answer- the most common type of land forms in South Africa are plateaus.


1. Tropical is one climate. The Capricorn crosses the middle of South Africa. this is the northern half of the southern region.

2. the daily average temperature is upper 60's to upper 70's. during the summer months they can get up to 70 inches.

Temperature zones.

There is a lot of semi arid. The temperatures are not extreme, but they are warm- from 70 degrees to 90 degrees.

The annual rainfall varies from 8 inches in some areas to 24 inches in other areas.

Lesotho, Swaziland, and Eastern Africa (the Indian ocean coastline) can get up to 55 inches of rainfall.

Desert Regions

The average temperature ranges from 48 degrees to 68 degrees.

It was called Skeleton coast because the dense fog caused the sailors lose their directions and they would crash into the coast and they would die of lack of water.


Answer- because of the dense moister and fog make it colder.


Answer- minerals, platinum, gold, and coal. They are important because they produce an income and it attracts workers and investments.


1. they have lots of minerals, metals, diamonds, diamond used to make cutting tools and grinding tools.

2. They also have coal, iron ore, uranium, copper, and other mineral. These resources have created a thriving mining industry.

Energy Resources

1. they mine and burn coal from their own deposits produce most of their electric power.

2. they also have large deposits of natural gas as well. they produce oil to.

Minerals and Other Resources


- Namibia in one of Africa's richest in mineral resources. some of the minerals include zinc, copper, gold, silver and uranium. they have platinum and diamonds too.

- Africa is known for its variety of wildlife. some animals include loins, zebras giraffes, and many other animals found across the region.


Answer- There would not be any wood to burn for energy, and it could cause erosion and the dirt could clog up a dam or dry it up.

Lesson 2

History of Southern Africa- Rise of Kingdoms

1. Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years. They hunt and gathered for food. They exchanged items like: Ivory, gold, copper, tools, salt, and luxury item, bead , and porcelain.

The Great Zimbabwe

1. Around A.D.900 the shone people built a powerful kingdom that is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The capital of the city was Great Zimbabwe.

2. The population reached up to as many as 20,000 people. The great Zimbabwe was abandoned in the 1400's because of it's food and water supply.

The Mutapa Empire

1. The Mutapa Empire thrived on the gold it mined and traded it for goods from China and India.

2. In the late 1600's Mutapa's kings allied with nearby Rozwi to drive out the Portuguese.

Other Kingdoms

1. In the early 1800's the leader Shaka united his people together and formed the Zulu empire.

2. From the 1600's to the 1800's a series of kingdoms rose and fell on the island of Madagascar.

European Colonies

1. In the 1500's Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African coast.

Clashes in South Africa

1. Europeans set up trading posted in the 1600's until the 1800's, but they did not establish colonies, which are large territories with settlers from the home.

Clashes in South Africa

1.Wars in Europe gave Britain control of the Cape Colony in the early 1800's, which after that thousands of British settlers soon rived.

Colonism in other areas

1. In 1884 representatives of some countries met in Berlin, Germany to divide the continent in half.


Answer- Britain claimed most of the the territory of Southern Africa.

Independence and equal Rights

1. French war in Madagascar ended in 1960, which means that it is the first Southern African country ti gain its independence.

The end of Portuguese rule

1. Finally by 1974 Portugal was tired of the nasty, very expensive wars.

The birth of Zimbabwe

1. After some countries gained their independence Britain changed named Zimbabwe Southern Rhodesia. In 1979 their government decided to hold an election, all of the Rhodesians could take part in, Robert Mugabe was elected president and the countries name was changed to Zimbabwe.

Equal Rights in South Africa

1. The growth in South Africa's mining an other industries depended on labor of black Africans, which greatly outnumber the white population there.

2. In 1994 Nelson Mandela became the first black person elected president.

3. In 1889 South Africa's president, P.W. Botha was forced to resign.

Lesson 3

Life in South Africa- the people of the region

1. The whites and Asians make up less than one percent of the population in South Africa, the regions's black African population is made up of many different ethnic and culture groups.

Population Patterns

1. South Africa's population is bigger than Lesotho and Swaziland, infact it is the biggest in the regions- about 49 million people.

2. 2 million people live in the small countries of Lesotho and Swailsland

3. Angola's rural areas are not as densely populated

Ethnic and cultural groups

1. Africa is home to many different ethnic and cultural groups, with a lot of different languages.

2. Zulu in South Africa, which has about 9 million people, make up the countries largest ethnic group.

3. When Europeans divided the region they did not pay any attention to the indigenous people.

Religion and language

1. In most every country most of the people are Christians.

2. Christianity was introduced to the area during the colonial era.

3. Swaziland, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique have large Muslim populations.


Life in South Africa

1. Urban and economic growth are challenging and changing many different ways of life.

Urban Life

1. most people live in the county side but people have been migrating because of job opportunities.

Urban growth and change

1. The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities services, such as trash collection, sewage treatment, and water distribution.

2. Luanda has had many problems providing enough clean water for its many people.

3. Outside the central cities white neighbor hoods where about 20% of the city's population live.

Families and Traditional life

1. Rural villages are often small- consisting of perhaps 20 or 30 houses.

2. In many cultures, all the people in a village are related by blood or marage to the village's headman or chief.


Answer- In a city

Southern Africa today

1. Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future. Still, the region faces serious social, economic, and political challenges.

Health Issues

1. Life expectancy is Southern Africa in the majority of the countries is around 50-55 due to lack of good rural health care. Many countries are trying to build rural clinics.

1. Malaria is a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes that is very common in several countries.

2. Diseases caused by bacteria in the water are dysentery and cholera. These diseases are widespread in Africa. Tuberculosis is also widespread.

3. Another major cause of death is HIV/AIDS. Southern Africa has a higher HIV/AIDS rater than any other region in Africa.

Progress and Growth

1. Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communications systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war.

2. Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable, democratic governments.

Help from other Countries

1. The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa.

2. Other countries and international organizations have also made huge investments in the region.

Answer- because of the lack of good rural health care.


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