Greece Civil War kyra & genesis

Background

(December 1944–January 1945 and 1946–49), two-stage conflict during which Greek communists unsuccessfully tried to gain control of Greece.

The first stage of the civil war began only months before Nazi Germany’s occupation of Greece ended in October 1944.

The beginning

Greece had many economic and political problems. Because of this General Ioannis Metaxas took over Greece with a fascist style dictatorship during the early twentieth century. Once he died in 1941 the communist party took over since Greece was left powerless. They organized and started the National Liberation Front (EAM). A group that was against them was also formed called the National Republican Greek League (EDES). Both groups fought each other in the winter of 1943 to 1944. The British was very anxious about the communist taking over so they helped out the EDES. Soon Greece had gained power again. Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin met in 1944. Churchill gave Stalin power in Romania if Stalin gave Churchill power in Greece. Because of this the germans, who was still in Greece from ww2, began to exit from Greece. That made stalin not help the communist (even though they were the most powerful group in Greece).

Joseph Stalin and Winston Churchill.

During the Greek Civil War many of the communist bases were located in Socialist Republic of Macedonia which was one of the communist republics of Yugoslavia.

CONFLICT

In the early 1944 the EAM set up a provisional government in the greek mountains that disowned both the Greek king and his government-in-exile. In October the the communists and royalist Greek guerrillas were brought together under the British observations in an uneasy allianced government in Athens. A few weeks later the government separated because the communist members of the group didn't want to break up their guerrilla force. A small bitter civil war broke out in Athens on December 3, which the British military forces put an end too, after the the EAM overran all of Greece except for the Athens and Thessaloniki.

The communist accepted they were defeated at a conference in Febuarary 1945. A general election was held in Greece in March 1946, but the communist and their followers declined to voting. September 1946 a plebiscite was which restored the Greek king to the throne. A full scale guerrilla war was reopened by the communist. The British thought defending Greece became to intense they passed their commitment onto the United States government with the truman doctrine. A lot of military and economic aid was needed. By the end of 1947 the communist had proclaimed an arranged government in the northern mountains.This second rebellion by the communist lasted until 1949 when the U.S. strengthen and supplied the greek army. They managed to clear them from the mountainous greek interior. On October 16, 1949 the Greek communist broadcasting station announced the end of any conflicts and many of the remaining communist fighters fled the country into neighboring Albania.

Summary of events

One morning in June of 1942 the villagers of Domnita, a town 185 miles from Athens, had a surprised visit from a group of 15 heavily armed men. Their black-bearded leader gave a short speech.

He was Aris Velouchiotis, formerly a colonel of artillery in the Greek army, and he was raising the banner of revolt against the occupying forces of their beloved Greece. He and his men were andartes, guerrillas. The name of their force was The National Popular Liberation Army–the Greek (ELAS). In the future the peasants would get to know that name well.

Outcome

The intense war between the Western and Communist worlds became tragic in Greece in the civil war of 1946-49 between the Greek Communist Party against the German occupation, and the royalist government restored by a vote in 1946.

It taken more than 80,000 lives and made aboout 700,000 people homeless.

facts

An estimate of more than 50,000 combatants died in the conflict, and more than 500,000 Greeks were temporarily displaced from their homes because of the fighting. This civil war left deep political division in Greek society between leftist and rightist. It also inflicted worse damage on Greece than the Second World War itself, and even by the 1990s the wounds had not entirely healed. Because of this civil war a lasting legacy of bitterness between segments of the Greek population.

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