ANCIENT PERIOD (3000 B.C. to 260 A.D.)
A. Number Systems and Arithmetic
- Development of numeration systems
- Creation of arithmetic techniques, lookup tables, the abacus and calculation tools.
B. Practical Measurement, Geometry and Astronomy
- Measurement devices to quantify distance, volume, area, and time
- Calendars invented to predict seasons and astronomical events
- Geometrical forms and patterns appear in and architecture
THE BABYLONIAN NUMERALS
The Babylonian civilization in Mesopotamia replaced the Sumerian civilization and the Akkadian civilization. Certainly in terms of their number system the Babylonians inherited ideas from the Sumerians and from the Akkadians. From the number systems of these earlier peoples came the base of 60, that is the sexagesimal system.
GREEK PERIOD (600 B.C. to 450 a.d.)
A. Greek Logic and Philosophy
- Schools of Logic, Science, and Mathematics are established
- Greek Philosophers promote logical, rational explanations of natural phenomena.
B. Euclidean Geometry
MATHEMATICS AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY
Greek Philosopher viewed the universe in mathematical terms. Plato described the five elements that form the world and relate them to the five regular polyhedra.