Geography costal fieldwork Report By Jenny Xue

Location of Cape Schanck , Gunnanmatta, and St Andrews Beach resource 1.1

Cape Schanck

-costal Features

Cliff- cliffs are formed by rock that is resistant to erosion and weathering. The cliff that was formed at Cape Schanck is covered by sparse vegetation and sand, also it was formed by volcano rock- basalt by constant sea waves.(Resource 1.2)
Stacks - stacks are often formed overtime by weathering and wave erosion. When a headland is exposed to a long period of weathering and erosion, the top of the arch will break and you ar elect with a stack. They are usually shaped in vertical column and stand alone. The stack formed at Cape Schanck was dark brown and eroded from volcano rock - basalt. (Resource 1.3)
(Resource 1.4) Wave-cut platform. Wave-cut platform's formation depends on rock structure and type. At Cape Schanck, the wave-cut platform is mainly formed in concave shaped while some are convex. These platforms are covered by deposited black rocks.

-costal Process

Attrition: Attrition happens when waves smash rocks and pebbles on the shore into each other and they break and become smoother. This is happening on the bay at Cpae Schanck. The hard black rocks near the waterline are hitting by sea waves and then they clash to each other and the surface of each rock becomes smoother under the long process.

Resource 1.5

Abrasion: At Cape Schanck, abrasion happened at both wave-cut platform and the feet of cliff. When bits of rock and sand in wave grind down cliff surfaces like sandpaper, cliff has been eroded and this is how it works.

Resource 1.6

Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is where waves are smashed into the crack and then the backwash where the water retreats over millions of years slowly erodes the rock particles and the cave is formed.

Example for hydraulic action resource 1.7

- Unsatisfactory & Costal management strategies

- At Cape Schanck, there is a sparse amount of vegetation on top of some headlands this is because human had invaded them.

Resource 1.8

- Although some wood along the fences had been repaired temporarily by wires after they had been broken, but there is still potentinal hazard.

Resource 1.9

Costal management strategies:

  • Rubbish bins are placed in case people through their rubbish to the flora area.
  • Fences are constructed along the walking lane to protect flora.
  • Educational board about general warning is set at the front of the entry.
Resource 2.0
  • There are some other variety types of signs are set at Cape Schank to ankowledge tourists.
  • Fences are constructed also to restrict human movement and for their safety.
  • Pathways are created for human to walk on.
  • Chicken wires are set to help plants growing.
  • Pathways and fences were built to regenerate the environment.


(Resource 2.1) Vegetation - vegetation at Gunnamatta is very rich and covers the tertiary sand dune. Some of the vegetations that appears ate Gunnamatta are gum tree, Hakea bushes, and Ti-trees.
(Resource 2.2)Beach - Gunnamatta beach is a typical sand beach which is wider and longer compares to Cape Schanck. It is sandier and at some spot you can see some grass.
(Resource 2.3) Dune - The boardwalk has been constructed on the tertiary, secondary and part of primary dune. Some vegetation has been grown on the sand dune and as you can see in the image, 'dog prohibited' sign has been placed on the dune too.


Long-shore drift: A long shore drift is where waves flow at an angle down the shoreline. At Gunnamatta, we found this one particular spot is longshore drift.

Resource 2.4

Rip: below is a rip because the water around the spot is calm water and the coming wave doesn't break as they move.

Resource 2.5

Weathering: this is an evidence for weathering beacause the wind blows away the sand and also destroys the vegetation which causes the deacreasing of vegetation.

Resource 2.6

-Unsatisfactory human Impact

- Car park is one of the unsatisfactory human impact at Gunnamatta, because it's too close to the tertiary dune which has a potential impact or hazard for the beach.

Resource 2.7

- Another human impact on Gunnamatta beach is the bin facility. I did not see many bins around there so I think this should be improved more.

St Andrews Beach

(Resource 3.1) Tertiary dune- the tertiary dune is very close to the main road and there are some house properties behind the dune. However, the dune is covered with sand and abundant vegetations such as Ti-tree and Hakea bushes.
(Resource 3.2) Beach - the beach at St Andrews is a almost the same as at Gunnamatta except there are some erosed rocks (rock pool) which protect the beach and some algae are left on the sand beach after the sea waves brought them on shore.
(Resource 3.3) Vegetation- this is a photo that was took on secondary dune which is also covered with many vegetations including hairy spinifex, Ti-tree, and Hakea.

-Costal process

Long-shore drift: the wave flows in an angle down the shoreline.

Resource 3.4

Rip: the waves around the spot is calm water and the wave in the spot doesn't break when it is swashing fore and backwards.

Resource 3.5

Hydraulic action: hydraulic action is the action of erosions hat occurs when water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. When the waves swash forward onto the shore the hard rocks on the beach are erosed and then becomes what we see now -rock pool.

Resource 3.6

-Unsatisfactory human impact

- House properties: Long time ago there used to be people creating their own pathways to the beach from the resident of St Andrews beach. Although some were canceled while some remained and this can be dangerous for the beach.

Resource 3.7

- No car park is also one of the main problems at St Andrews beach, since the entry of the beach is too close to the main road, it is really inconvenient to park on the road.

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