Latin Trimester II Review James Galante, Brendan Fitzgerald, Kyle Haase, Kevin Heneghan, Sebastian Posillico, Joe Theodorou

Capitulum LXIV


Throughout the decade of the 50s B.C., political gangs, led by Publius Clodius, agent of Caesar, and by Titus Annius Milo, henchman of the senatorial faction, opposed each other and disrupted the normal constitutional processes of the state. Milo and Clodius became candidates for the election of 53 B.C.: Milo for consul; Clodius for praetor. Postponement of elections led to murder of Clodius by Milo. In 52 B.C., Cicero delivered the speech “Pro Milone” in defense of Milo. This account was very different than that of Quintus Asconius Pedianus. Cicero was often confused by the perplexities of the politics and became caught between men with more powerful ambitions: First and Caesar and Pompey, then Antony and Octavian. He felt trapped between fear of Caesar and loyalty to Pompey. These letters include one to his family in Rome, one to his closest friend Atticus and letters to Cicero from Pompey and Caesar


During the Roman election of 53 BC, Cicero was put in a tough position. The two political gang leaders were both up for election. Milo murdered Clodius for his political gain. Cicero delivered a courtroom speech of defense on behalf of his friend Milo (Pro Milone). Quintus Asconius Pedianus, a scholar of the first century A.D. who consulted official records of the trial, gives a very different perspective on the murder from that presented Cicero. Cicero became caught between men of power at First it was Caesar and Pompey, then it was Antony and Octavian. In later chapters it is revealed in his letters that he became enclosed by fear of Caesar and loyalty to Pompey, who represented the Senate’s interests.

Gerunds and the Gerundive Revisted

Gerunds function as verbal nouns ending in -ing; noted by an -nd within their construction, taking second declension neuter singular endings

Gerundives function as verbal adjectives modifying a noun or pronoun; used when the thought requires a direct object; agrees with the subject it modifies

Parandus, -a, -um [Gerundive]

  • Parandi [Gerund]

Habendus, -a, -um [Gerundive]

  • Habendi [Gerund]

Mittendus, - a, -um [Gerundive]

  • Mittendi [Gerund]

Adjectives with the Dative

Certain adjectives can be completed by a noun in the dative

Amicus, -a, -um

  • friendly (to)

Aptus, -a, -um

  • fit/suitable (for)

Carus, -a, -um

  • dear (to)

The Passive Paraphrastic (Gerundive of Obligation)

Gerundive of Obligation: A gerundive coupled with the some form of esse usually denotes or express necessity or obligation (must, should)

"Amici sunt diligendi"

  • "Friends have to be cherished"

"Amici erant diligendi"

  • "Friends had to be cherished"

"Amici erunt diligendi"

  • "Friends will have to be cherished"

Dative of Agent

In the Passive Periphrastic, the subject who must complete the action or obligation is expressed in the dative

This serves the same purpose as Ablative of agent with other passive forms of the verb

"Liber Ciceroni scribendus est"

"The book has to be written by Cicero"

  • "Cicero has to write the book"

"Haec agenda tibi sunt"

  • "For you these things are to be done"

"Hic liber discipulis legendus erat"

  • "This book had to be read by the students"

Capitulum LXV


In Chapter 65, a Cicero tells the story of the death of Clodius in a way that favors Milo, and which is unflavored but he public. We get a different account from Cicero on the death of Clodius in this chapter with the implication that Clodius was the one who planned an attack on Milo on the Apppian Way, but the plan backfired and Clodius was killed. In the first translation of this chapter we get an insight into what happened preceding the meeting of Milo and Clodius on the Appian Way. It is said why Milo leaves and what he is leaving for. In the second translation we go more in depth into the encounter between the two subjects of this story, and are given more details yo what occurred or what led up to the crime. In translation C we see how the fight started when they ran into each other, and how spears were thrown at Milo. Clodius after launching an attack on Milo was then murdered in a turn of events, and that's when men started to be accused. In the last translation, we find that The verdict of the senate was against Milo even though they knew they hadn't heard the entirety of the story. This is just one of few accounts of the encounter, and is told by Cicero. This story appears in some other chapters of the book, demonstrating its importance.


In line 1-2 from iter-necessarium, we see an example of parallelism. Parallelism was a huge part of Cicero's writings, for he used it in most of his works. We see that he includes the use of three words in this sentence, all describing the conditions to why Milo left. Cicero explained that Milo left for reason and how he couldn't have just "randomly" been there. Cicero uses these words for emphasis into his thought and one of the main points in his speech is to move around these three points whihc get his message across. Parallelism is also used in lines 1-3 Senatores-tres. This sentence seems to be against the favors of Milo, but instead leads into a point discussed later on. In this sentence we see that the senators didn't believe what Milo had to say, and instead sided with the reality that Clodius was intentionally murdered by Milo. Lastly in lines 3-4 from Videbantur-occisum it is apparent that a litote is used in order to emphasize the next topic spoken about. The senators seem to know what really happen and the litote emphasizes that fact. Cicero states that they know that Milo was ambushed, and that Milo murdered Clodius in self defense, but they sneezed more proof, so they couldn't do anything. All of these examples show that Cicero was very formal in his speaking and used unique Latin grammar to the fullest of his ability

Parallel Structure

The balance of two or more words, phrases, or clauses in the same sentence to indicate that they have the same level of importance

"Italia in Europa est" - "Marcus ad scholam currit"

  • "Italy is in Europe" - "Marcus runs to school"
  • Both of these sentences, in Latin, are structured the same exact ways

"Like father, like son"

  • A more simple example of two ideas placed into the same importance

"Flying is fast, comfortable, and safe"

  • This example shows three times parallel structure was used in one sentence


A figure of speech in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite. Basically in its simplest terms, a litote is a double negative

"Videbantur non ignoravisse"

  • "Seemed not to have been unaware"
  • This translation is equivalent to "Seemed to have been aware"

"Not bad"

  • "Very good"
  • This is a very simple example but it gets the point across

"He is not an ordinary man"

  • "He is a unique man"
  • Another example conveying the same meaning but through different words

Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives

A pronoun or an adjective that designates some person or thing without specifying which one (some, anyone, anything)

Forms of quidam are commonly found with the preposition ex and meaning some of when a partitive idea is expressed, e.g., quidam ex militibus, some of the soldiers

The Romans used forms of quis instead of aliquis or quisquam, after si, nisi, num, and ne. For example, Si quis in Forum ierit, multos homines videbit, If anyone goes into the forum, he or she will see many people

“Servus aliquid portage”

  • “The Slave is carrying something”
  • Here the word “aliquid” is being used as a pronoun

“Servus aliquas epistulas portat”

  • "The slave is carrying some letters"
  • Here the word “aliquas” is being used as an adjective

“Cum debere carnufex cuiquam quicquam quemquam, quemque quisque conveniat, neget”

  • “Since the rascal denies that anyone owes anything to anyone, let each one sue the other”
  • There are five indefinite pronouns in this sentence

Capitulum LXVI


The chapter starts out with a letter from Cicero to his family. He is letting them know that he has them in mind and hopes they are doing well. He essentially talks out the situation at hand regarding Caesar who is currently on his way to Rome with his legions returning from his lengthy and victorious campaign in Gaul. He says that if Caesar enters the city modestly then they should be fine, but if the mindless man attacks then he fears there may be little hope for them. He says that he wants them to make a plan with Pomponious, Camillo, and whoever else it seems appropriate to do so with. He concludes by wishing them luck and telling them to write back regarding what happens. Cicero then writes to Atticus seeking advice on what he should do. He basically has a breakdown and goes on and on about all the possible factors he must take into account and the various resulting outcomes. He realizes that he is basically donezo. Pompey then sends an invitation to Cicero asking him to join him and meet him in Brundisium traveling via the Appian Way. Pompey puffs him up and tries to win his favor by addressing him as Imperator, which Cicero was not at all deserving of. Next Caesar has the same idea as Pompey, to gain Cicero's favor. They both realize that having Cicero, who was by far the most respected orator and the man with the most influence in the Senate and in court would be essential in winning this upcoming conflict.


(Lines 9-11, Trans. A) Quomodo quidem nunc se res habet, modo ut haec nobis loca tenere liceat, bellissime vel mecum vel in nostris praediis esse poteritis. Modo is regularly followed by an ut clause, so it is important to look for a subjunctive verb (it is a purpose clause in this case) Did you know that loca is a neuter plural, yet another grammatical gem that came out of freaking nowhere. This sentence is important because it shows Cicero explaining an ideal situation which he shortly after explains is probably unlikely since famine will surely strike the Rome sooner or later (Line 5-6, Trans. B) Equidem a te petam consilium, ut soleo. Petam uses an ablative structure when looking for the person from whom something is being sought, and in this case guidance is being sought from Atticus by Cicero. This sentence bares much significance because it shows how Cicero desperately needs advice and help. He is in a very tricky position and doesn't know what to do next. (Line 2-4, Trans. D) Cum properarem atque essem in itinere, praemissis iam legionibus, praeterīre tamen non potui quin et scrīberem ad te et gratias tibi agerem, etsi hoc et feci saepe et saepius mihi facturus videor. This is a cum concessive in action, cum introduces the first clause and then tamen introduces the second clause. This is Caesar’s attempt to convince Cicero to side with him, and Cicero’s decision will have a huge impact on the future of the Roman Empire

Fear Clauses

A word that expresses fear or danger always introduces the clause, which is then completed by a verb in the subjunctive (usually either the present or imperfect tense).

The word that precedes the clause is usually a verb expressing fear, but may be a noun such as metus or timor.

Note ~ In Fear Clauses, ut is translated that… not/cannot and ne is translated that (this is the opposite of their usual meanings, so be wary)

“Vereor ut Dolabella ipse satis nobis prodesse possit”

  • “I fear that Dolabella himself cannot be of sufficient help to us”

“Metuo ne iam intercludamur”

  • “I am afraid that we may be cut off already”

“Etiam illud verendum est, ne brevi tempore fames in urbe sit.”

  • “Furthermore there must be concern, that in a short time there will be famine in the city”

Potential Subjunctive

When the independent subjunctive verb indicates something that is either conceivable or possible

Can be translated as: could, may, should, or would

“His de rebus velim cum Pomponio,...”

  • “About these things I would want you to make a plan with Pomponius,...”

“Dicam me stultissimum fuisse.”

  • “​I would say that I was very stupid.”

“​Non audeam cogitare de talibus rebus.”

  • “​I wouldn’t dare to think about such things.”

Interpreting "ut"

When ut comes after the first clause in a sentence, it introduces a result clause and means “that”.

Look for a Subjunctive Verb to complete the clause.

When ut follows a verb such as rogare, orare, persuadere, or imperare it introduces an indirect command with a Subjunctive Verb.

In English we express this by an infinitive.

When ut follows timere, vereri, or metuere, ut will mean that...not, introducing a fear clause with a subjunctive verb.

If none of the preceding instances apply, then keep reading until you find a verb that completes the it clause.

If the verb introduced by ut is in the subjunctive then it is a purpose clause and ut means (in order) to.

“Senatores quidam Caesarem adeo timebant ut Roma effugerent.”

  • “Certain senators feared Caesar so much that they fled from Rome.”

“Cicero propinquos rogat ut consilia bona caperent.”

  • “Cicero is asking his relatives to make good plans.”

“Cicero verebatur ut satis cibi in urbe esset.”

  • “Cicero was afraid that there would not be enough food in the city.”

“Cicero epistulam misit ut familiam suam adiuvaret.”

  • “Cicero sent a letter (in order) to help his household.”

Deliberative Questions

When a question is asked of oneself that can imply doubt, indignation, surprise, or confusion

Typically it does not necessarily expect an answer

“Ego quid agam?”

  • “What should I do?” or “What am I to do?”

“Persequar eum?”

  • “Should I follow him?” or “Am I to follow to him?”

“Tradam igitur isti me?”

  • “Should I surrender myself to him?” or “Am I to surrender myself to him?”

Capitulum LXIX


Chapter 69 is told from a first person perspective as a propaganda piece and begins with Augustus (then still Octavian) at the age of 19. He talks of how he raised an army with his own money and by himself, and liberated Rome from the dominating political faction. The state gave Octavian the political powers of a consul, and then once the two other consuls (Pansa and Hertius) perished in battle. As his first political act, he legally had Brutus, Cassius and other conspirators exiled for their crimes, and he eventually defeated them in two battles after they waged war.. After being elected consul six more times, Octavian was bestowed the honorary title of Augustus and given control of all aspects of the government by the people and the senate. Playing his politics humbly, he states multiple times that he was given the power by the people, and that his colleagues were his equals. He then begins to talk about how he created the Pax Romana by waging many wars, expanding Romes horizons, and granting those seeking pardon citizenship. He further talks about his favor with the people after a victory procession was given on his return and that the door of Quirinius was closed. To emphasize the importance of this achievement, the door was shut twice before his rule and three times during it. He finally goes on to list his architectural achievements which included the restoring and building the Theatre of Pompey, the Basilica Julia, the Aqua Marci, the Forum of Julius Caesar, and the temples of 82 gods.


The absolute genius behind Octavian/Augustus's rule was the ideal way that he played his politics, his restoration of faith in the people, and his ability to put others on the same plane as him. He portrayed himself as the humble ruler, and that everything was given to him. He never explicitly states he did something for personal motivation. For example, when he went after Brutus and Cassius legally, It’s clear many of his motivations were probably personal. However, when he recounts the events, he states he only went after them because he broke the law. Augustus also states that his title “revered one” and style as first citizen was given to him. by the people/the Senate, and that his countless terms as consul were also given by the majority. Although he conquered many nations, and waged wars, he portrays himself as the extender of peace to inferior people, to almost civilize them Finally, the genius of his rule culminates with his restoration of faith in the people. With Augustus started the deification of Roman rulers, and his erecting of many religious structures helped link Rome’s success with divine providence.

Summary of Cum Clauses

If a noun or pronoun follows the word “cum” is not in ablative, the word cum is introducing a clause.

If it is completed by a verb in the indicative, cum will mean “when.

  • Indicative > cum = when

If it is completed by a verb in the subjunctive AND if “tamen” appears within the clause, then cum will mean “although.”

  • Subjunctive + tamen > cum = although

If “tamen” does not appear, use context to see if “when” , “because” or “since” makes sense.

  • Subjunctive - tamen > when, because, or since

Capitulum LXXII


The underlying cause and persistent force of this issue is the frail fortifications to which the relationship was built on. Dido was persuaded by the gods to adopt an everlasting love for Aeneas. The fact of the matter is, Dido's extreme passion for Aeneas was not reciprocated to the same degree. She was dangerously attached to him emotionally, recognizing with a full heart their false marriage. Dido lived completely for Aeneas, whereas Aeneas' goals lied solely in completing his fate . Dido was under the impression that they would be together forever, yet Aeneas was willing to take it up until the gods decided he should leave. When Dido's premonitions were crushed, salt was rubbed even further into the wound when she knew that Aeneas was going to leave without telling her. Her extreme despair exploded into an emotionally charged rant. The power of her statements was driven by a slew of rhetorical questions. These questions were posed in order to rise a feeling of guilt in Aeneas in hope of getting him to regret his decision. Aeneas responded in a way that runs concurrent to Dido's argument. Aeneas responded in a very calm and practical way, without emotions to skew his point. Although not as powerful to the feelings, Aeneas made use of similes and facts to show that his options were limited. Despite one final desperation to appeal to Aeneas emotions and passions, Aeneas is cemented in his decision. Dido then makes the decision that because of the loss of her extreme infatuation, she will never be happy ever again. In order to assuage this pain the only option that she sees in suicide. Suicidal thoughts are considered a form of mental illness. This mental strain that Dido experienced was triggered by rapid changing of fortunes and the juxtaposition of the two different situations heightened the despair of the other.


Virgil's Aeneid is an epic poem describing the journey of Aeneas fleeing from the ruins of the destroyed city of Troy. On his journey, he encounters a storm that sends his ship down toward the African Coast, near Carthage. Juno and Venus, in order to force Aeneas to remain in Carthage for the safety of him and his men, make Dido fall madly in love with him. In Book IV of the Aeneid, Dido and Aeneas become lovers. They eventually "unite" in "marriage". This specific phraseology refers to the fact that they were not married in the legal or religious sense, but rather that they shared strong conjugal relations and lived together for an extend period of time. Seemingly abruptly, Jupiter realizes Aeneas' long stay and sends Mercury to order Aeneas to return to his voyage to Italy to accomplish his fate. After ordering his men to get ready, Aeneas is confronted by Dido when she find out about his voyage. She begins to angrily berate him. She hostility questions his motives and brings to light the abruptness of the situation. She does her best to express her feelings of confusion, animosity, and helplessness. After the initial outburst, Aeneas now expresses the story from his point of view. He explains that his outlook on the entire situation is radically different than hers. He says that it is not really his choice in leaving and that he must go on to fulfill his fate. After a final plea, Aeneas long to comfort Dido, but returns to his ship. Dido’s life is haunted by the thought of losing her love, so she decides to burn all of Aeneas' belongings and to commit suicide. She curses Aeneas and his descendants and climbs onto the pyre of her death.

Preposition Omitted with Compound Verbs

If there is a compound verb, the meaning of that verb in preposition form may be left out. The preposition is omitted, and the noun is usually in the ablative case.

“Mea terra decedere”

  • “leave my land”
  • de” omitted

“sentenia recedere”

  • “take back the opinion”
  • ex” omitted

“toga tua reddere”

  • “return your toga”
  • ad” omitted


A series of three phrases or clauses that are parallel in structure where anaphorical repetition is common, and it contains a buildup of ideas where the last member is the most important.

“nec te noster amor”

“nec te data dextera quondam”

“nec moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido?”

  • “Does neither our love nor the right hand once given nor Dido about to die with a cruel death hold you?”
  • An obvious progression of three ideas in parallel structure.

The Ending -ere

The ending "ere" is an alternative ending for "-erunt" in the third person perfect plural.


  • Should be "orderunt"
  • "they hate"


  • Should be "fulserunt"
  • "they support"


  • Should be "manerunt"
  • "they remain"

Intransitive Verbs with Genitive

There is a small group of special verbs that take the genitive instead of an object of preposition, and must be memorized.

Memini, Meminisse

  • To remember

misereor, misereri, miseritus sum

  • To take pity on, feel sorry

obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum

  • To forget

potior, potiri, potitus sum

  • To get control, get possession of

Verbs with Forms in the Perfect System Only

There are certain verbs that only have perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect forms. In these cases, the perfect is translated as present, the pluperfect is translated as perfect, the future perfect is translated as future.


  • To remember


  • He remembers


  • He remembered


  • He will remember

Impersonal Verbs of Feeling

Many impersonal verbs that we have encountered express feelings. It is best to translate these with a person as the subject. These verbs must be memorized.

Miseret, Misere, Miseruit

  • It makes one pity, feel sorry

Paenitet, Paenitere, Paenituit

  • It makes one regret something, depend

Pudet, Pudere, Puduit

  • it makes one ashamed of something

Taedet, Taedere, Taeduit

  • It bores, makes one tired of something


An onomatopoeia is a figure of speech where the sound of the word imitates or suggests the sound one hears. This stresses the action the verb is describing.


  • Mimics the sound of weeping


  • Mimics the sound of murmuring

"Feli Feli"

  • Mimics the "Meow" of a cat

Similes in Epic Poetry

Similies are comparisons using "like" or "as". Similes act as signposts to alert the reader that a turning point in the story has come or they are used to demonstrate the importance of an event. Mainly introduced by the words: "ut, velut, sicut, tamquam, and qualis"

"Quam celer ruit ventus, tam celer currit ille."

  • "He runs like the wind"

"Est vir qui nummum olfacit ceu feles murem olfacit."

  • "He is a man who smells a pretty penny just like a cat smells a mouse."

"Lodix iste canem olet madidum"

  • "That blanket smells like wet dog"

Expressing Purpose (Consolidation)

So far we have met many different types of purpose clauses for many different types of situations, such as relative clauses, fear clauses, and many others. There are certain clauses which are introduced by a relative pronoun, have their verbs in the subjunctive, and are governed by a verb of motion. This is known as a relative clause of motion.

“quae lucantem animam nexosque resolveret artus."

  • “to release the struggling soul and the bound limbs"

"animam Didonis resolutum"

  • "to release Didos soul"

"ne diutus pateretur"

  • "so that she would not suffer any longer"

Capitulum LXXIV


Ovid’s epic the Metamorphoses consists of 15 stories in dactylic hexameter, and focuses on a central theme of change and transformation featuring many Roman gods and legends. The Metamorphoses are meant to be a history of the creation of the earth from the to the death of Julius Caesar utilizing 250 Greek and Roman mythology mixed with historical fact. It is meant to portray how the Romans viewed the history and past. The two stories of the Ovid captured in chapter 74 are the story of Midas and the story of Daedalus and Icarus. Midas is granted a wish by a God and foolishly wishes that everything he touches will turn to gold. He soon realizes the mistake and asks for the wish to be revoked, which it is, but in return, he also receives the ears of a donkey. This is spotted by a servant who can't keep himself from telling someone. Thus, the slave goes and tells the secret to a whole in the earth, but the winds carry it around, letting the secret out. In the story of Daedalus and his son Icarus, Daedelus creates wings with which he and Icarus can fly, but the wings are held together by wax which will melt if he flies to close to the sun and fall apart if he flies to close to water. The wings were constructed for the sake of aiding him in returning from his exile on Crete. As they flew back, Icarus’ wings gradually began to melt and he fell into the water where he died.


The Metamorphoses are meant to be a history of the creation of the earth from the to the death of Julius Caesar utilizing 250 Greek and Roman mythology mixed with historical fact. It is meant to portray how the Romans viewed the history and past. He himself sums up the poem in the opening lines, “My intention is to tell of bodies changed. To different forms; the gods, who made the changes, Will help me — or I hope so — with a poem. That runs from the world’s beginning to our own days.” The stories of the Metamorphoses are meant to show a change (or metamorphosis) in the characters. Almost the entirety of the poem changes throughout the poem. Love is the other major theme and teaching point. He speaks of the power and influence that love asserts upon everyone. Hubris was also a major theme. The poems criticize and show the many weaknesses of uncontrollable hubris.


Wide separation of words that belong together. Most often among adjective-noun relationships. Gives emphasis to the words that are seperated

“Dixit et ignotas animum dimittit in artes”

  • Ignotas modifies artes but is found toward the beginning of the sentence while artes is located at the end

“Creber harundinibus tremulis ibi surgere lucus”

  • Creber modifies lucus meaning "thick grove"

“...omnis est e vita sublata iucunditas”

  • Omnis modifies iucunditas meaning "all pleasure"

Poetic Plurals

Found in poetry, plural words in which the logical translation would be singular

“dapibusline 120 of 74c

  • Meant to be translated as "singular banquet" or "feast", but in the ablative plural

“Ceras” line 226 of 74f

  • Meant to be translated as "wax singular" but is in the accusative plural

“Ora” line 229 of 74f

  • Meant to be translated as "singular mouth" but is in the nominative plural


Created with images by isawnyu - "The Ara Pacis (II)"

Report Abuse

If you feel that this video content violates the Adobe Terms of Use, you may report this content by filling out this quick form.

To report a Copyright Violation, please follow Section 17 in the Terms of Use.