DNA and it's Function Richard martin

In 1869, the substance we call DNA was first described by Johannes Miescher, pictured above. Miescher, in his studies, found that DNA wasn't a protein, but was very rich in nitrogen. However, he never found out the structure or function of this substance.

During the 1950's, James Watson and Francis Crick used metal to make models of their idea of DNA. They were the first to discover and suspect that DNA is in the structure of a helix.

Also in the 1950's, Edwin Chargaff discovered that in DNA, the amounts of thymine and adenine are identical, as are the amounts of cytosine and guanine. (A=T and C=G)

Bonds between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of another form the backbone for every strand.

A Chromosome is a structure that consists of DNA and included proteins.

A Karyotype is the image of ones individual diploid set of chromosomes.

DNA is replicated when a cell copies its DNA. During the process, enzymes break the hydrogen bonds that hold the double helix together. Then DNA polymerases attach to primers, and begin to replicate.

DNA is damaged when polymerases work very fast, causing mutations. Another reason for damage, or mutation, is the failing of replicative or fixing processes.

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