Manifest Destiny 345-367

Rivalry in the Northwest

  1. The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
  2. The United States based its claim in Robert Gray's discovery of the Columbia River in 1792 and the Lewis and Clark expedition.

Adams-Onis Treaty

  1. Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to Pacific Ocean.
  2. The Spanish agreed to set limits of their territory at what is now California's northern border and to give up all claims to Oregon.

Mountain Men in Oregon

  1. Fur traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
  2. The country's leading fur company, it traded on the East Coast, in the Pacific Northwest,and in China.

What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?

In 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty.

Oregon and Manifest Destiny

  1. In the 1830's, Americans began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle.
  2. Economic troubles in the East and reports of Oregon's fertile land drew many people.

Marcus and Narcissa Whitman

  1. Among the first settlers were Dr.Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa.
  2. They were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the Cayuse to Christianity.

Along the Oregon Trail

  1. The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
  2. In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the journey to Oregon.
  3. They traveled to Oregon on prairie schooners.

America Seeks Its Manifest Destiny

  1. Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy.
  2. In 1819 John Quincy Adams expressed what many Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the Pacific was as certain as the Mississippi River flowing to the sea.
  3. In the 1840's, New York newspaper editor John O'Sullivan expressed in more specific words the idea of a national mission.

Fifty-Four Forty or Fight

  1. Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
  2. In 1844 presidential election, James K. Polk, the Democratic nominee, supported the desire.
  3. Polk won the election because Whig support was not united behind Clay.

How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election?

Polk had a strong issue on the Oregon issue and Clay didn't.

Statehood for Florida and Texas?- How did Florida become a state?

They became a state when Spain transferred to Florida.


  1. When Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an American territory.
  2. Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824.
  3. Many planters from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolinas had worn out their soil with years of heavy use.

The Territory Grows

  1. In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
  2. Enslaved people made up about one-half of Florida's population.

Statehood for Florida

  1. Florida became the twenty-seventh state in the United States on March 3, 1845.

What caused the population of Florida to grow?

The enslaved people made one-half of the population. The leading planters played a big role in it.


  1. Mexico controlled the land that is now Texas.
  2. At the time, the non-Native American population of Texas was about 3,000.
  3. Most of these people were Tejanos, or Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home.

The Alamo

  1. The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
  2. The Texans did have brave leaders, however, including folk hero Davy Crockett, commander William B. Travis, and a tough Texan named Jim Bowie.
  3. The Mexican army was too large to hold back.

Texas Declares Its Independence

  1. On March 2, 1836 four days before the fall of the Alamo they declared independence from Mexico.
  2. They then established the Republic of Texas.

The Lone Star Republic

  1. In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
  2. Mirabeau Lamar, who had fought at the Battle of San Jacinto, served as vice president.

Texas Becomes a State

  1. Many Texans wanted to join the United States.
  2. He put off the question of annexing Texas.

Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?

They wanted to become a slave state.

War With Mexico

How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?

It created more states.

The New Mexico Territory

  1. In the early 1800's, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
  2. Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years.
  3. Mexico and New Mexico won its independence form Spain in 1821.

How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?

The Santa Fe Trail influenced the American Settlement of New Mexico.

California's Spanish Culture

  1. Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700's.
  2. After Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821, California became a Mexican state.

Conflict Begins

  1. President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
  2. After Mexico refused to sell the lands, Polk planned to gain them through war.
  3. To justify war, Polk hoped to get Mexico to strike first.

A War Plan

  1. Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals.
  2. First, the United States would drive Mexican forces out of Texas.
  3. By 1847, Zachary Taylor had accomplished the first goal.

California's Uprising

  1. Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising.
  2. On June 14, 1846, the Americans declared California independent.

Peace Terms

  1. Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  2. Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory-what are now the states of California, Nevada, and Utah, as well as most of Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.

What did America gain from the Mexican War?

They gained 500,000 square miles of territory.

California and Utah- How did the discovery of gold help California?

California became popular for finding all of the gold.

California Gold Rush

  1. When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search for riches.
  2. Those who arrived in 1849 were called forty-niners.

The Californios

  1. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios-Mexicans living in California-citizens and made Californios-Mexicans living in California-citizens of the United States.

The Life of a Forty-Niner

  1. As people rushed to a new are to look for gold, they built new communities.
  2. Towns and small cities appeared over night.

Gold Rush Society

  1. Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women.

Economic and Political Progress

  1. The Gold Rush had lasting effects on California.

How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?

All of the gold attracted the people to California.

A Religious Refuge in Utah

  1. While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in nearby Utah.

The Mormons Move On

  1. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awaking of the 1830's and 1840's.
  2. The founder of the Mormon Church was Joseph Smith, a New Englander living in western New York.
  3. Smith said that he had received visions that led him to build a new church.

A Haven in the Desert

  1. The Mormon migration began in 1846.
  2. About 12,000 Mormons made the trek in the largest single migration in American history.
  3. In 1847 the Mormons finally reached the Great Salt Lake.

Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?

They had to keep moving from one place to another so they didn't caught.

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