Chapter 29 Nueral control

Central Nervous System

Consists of the brain and spinal cord (evolved from dorsal cord)

The central nervous system controls thought processes, guides movement, and registers sensations throughout the body.

Peripheral Nervous System

Consists of the sensory neurons coming from stimulus receptors that inform the CNS of the stimuli and motor neurons running from the CNS to the muscles and glands.

The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system to the limbs and organs. It also serves as a communication relay between the brain, spinal cord, and the rest of the body.


Somatic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements

It consists of different kinds of nerves or sensory nerves, and efferent nerves or motor nerves.

Autonomic Nervous System

the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes.

Consists of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions

Parasympathetic Nervous System- Controls body process during ordinary situations.

Sympathetic Nervous System- Prepares the body for stressful or emergency situation, fight or flight.

Sensory Neurons

Nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.

They are the basic functional units of the nervous system and they generate electrical signals called action potentials. Action potentials allow them to quickly transmit information over long distances across the body.


Types of nerve cells whose axons are limited to a single area of the brain

They transmite impulses between other neurons

Motor Nuerons

a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.

Neuromuscular Junction

The synapse or connection between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle is known as neuromuscular junction.

Communication between these can happen via nerve cells


an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter

A chemical released by nerve cell sends a signal to other cells

Norepinephrine and Epinephrine

Fight or flight harmonies released when you are in distress

Epinephrine- produced by the adrenal medulla andcauses either smooth muscle relaxation in the airways or contraction of the smooth muscle in arterioles. This results in blood vessel constriction in the kidneys, and decreasing or inhibiting blood flow to the nephrons.

Norepinephrine- a stress hormone that is produced by the adrenal medulla. It increases blood pressure, heart rate, and glucose from energy stores.


Information from one neuron flows to another neuron across a synapse.

The synapse contains a small gap separating neurons.

The synapse consists of:

a presynaptic ending that contains neurotransmitters, mitochondria and other cell organelles

a postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites for neurotransmitters

a synaptic cleft or space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic endings.

White Matter

White matter carries nerve impulses between neurons.

It consists of bundles of axons which connect various gray matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other

Grey Matter

Grey matter is a major component of the central nervous system,

Unlike white Matter, it contains numerous cell bodies and relatively few myelinated axons.

The grey matter includes regions of the brain involved in muscle control, sensory perception, memory, emotions, speech, decision making, and self-control.

Cerebral cortex

The Cerebral Cortex is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain.

The cerebral cortex is connected to various subcortical structures, like the thalamus and the basal ganglia, and sends information to them along efferent connections and receives information from them through afferent connections.

Lobes of the Brain

The Lobes of the brain are the Frontal, Pariental, Temporal, and Occipitial Lobes.

The Frontal Lobe carries out higher mental processes such as thinking, decision making, and planning.

The Pariental Lobe is where information such as taste, temperature and touch are integrated, or processed.

The Temporal Lobe makes sense of the all the different sounds and pitches being transmitted from the sensory receptors of the ears.

The Occipital Lobe makes sense of visual information so that we are able to understand it.

Limbic system

The lambic system includes the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus.

The structures of the limbic system are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory.

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