Inca By: Olivia, Maggie, Kat, Haley, Julia


In Inca they are rebuilding terraces and irrigation systems and reclaiming traditional crops and methods of planting to make Incan agriculture techniques more efficient in terms of water use.
  • Social structure divided into 4 levels: Sapa Inca, royal, nobility, and the ayllu. (Sapa Inca was most powerful person in the entire empire. He served as the King of the Incas and was believed to be "son of the Sun"
  • Land and money was split into several heirs which kept people equal in wealth.
  • Women have to word hard in farming and with house work. Had almost no rights. (The major crops were corn, sweet potatoes, squash, and beans).
  • Families were divided into groups of ten, one-hundred, one thousand and ten thousand and a chief led each group.
  • There was a chain command which stretched from the community and religious levels all the way to Cuzco.


  • Rulers divided the huge empire into various different manageable units
  • These smaller units were governed by a central bureaucracy
  • To keep the empire controlled, incans built many cities in conquered areas
  • The Inca state obtained almost all control over economic and social life
  • The Inca included the allyu structure into a governing system based off of the decimal system
  • Local administration was left in the hands of local rulers
  • Government records were kept according to memory because the Inca never developed a writing system
  • An accounting device used for record keeping known as quipo, was a set of knotted strings used to record data


  • Roads- 13,000 miles, government stability
  • Roads were built with bridges and causeways
  • Interactions focused on trade among people within this vast empire
  • Able to control their vast empire by using techniques that insured cooperation or subordination
  • Migration


  • Incan mummies
  • Worshiped spirits and bodies of their ancestors
  • Belief in afterlife and reincarnation
  • Mummy bundles
  • Human sacrifice
  • Mummies placed mummies in above ground tombs called chullpas, and descendants would bring offerings of food and precious goods to honor their ancestors
  • Worshiped Sun God Inti, and their emperor was believed to have direct descendants from the Sun God
  • Weaving and metallurgy were prominent cultural achievements
  • Tools and weapons made out of bronze
  • Llama wool and cotton was used to make textiles
  • Gold and Silver used make decorations for their temples
  • Performed successful skull surgeries
  • Quipu was for record keeping
  • Developed an elaborate calendar


  • Agriculturally based
  • Produced varieties of potatoes, tomatoes, and peppers, corn, and squash
  • Used barter system
  • Road networks led to increased trade
  • Traded gold, silver, and clay pots
  • Widespread irrigation
  • Terraced farming
  • Efficient management of labor
  • Labor was divided according to region
  • Did not use money

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