Ancient Egypt One of the largest anCient empires

History

The first period in Ancient Egypt is known as the Early Dynastic Period which lasted from 3050 to 2686 BC. It was the beginning of the unification of the upper and lower areas of the Nile River Valley, which formed Ancient Egypt. When King Narmer was the first leader, the capital moved from Their Thinis to Memphis.

During the second period or the Old Kingdom, which lasted from 2686 to 2181 BC, there were many advances in architecture, art, and technology. The Pyramids and Sphinx are thought to have been created during this time. This period was a golden age of peace. Over the course of the fifth and sixth dynasties, the kingdom's wealth started to fall. It was not until the death of the sixth dynasty's king, King Pepy II, that the Old Kingdom ended and all of Egypt fell into chaos.

After the collapse of the Old Kingdom, the third period or First Intermediate Period, which lasted from 2181 to 2055 BC, saw success with the seventh and eight dynasties. It was not until 2160 BC where central authority fell, causing War between governors. During this era of conflict two different kingdoms arose: A line of 17 rulers (dynasties nine and 10) ruled Middle Egypt between Memphis and Thebes, while another family of rulers arose in Thebes to challenge central power. Around 2055 BC, the Theban prince Mentuhotep managed to topple Middle Egypt, and reunited Egypt.

The assassination of the last ruler of the 11th dynasty marked the start of the fourth period, the Middle Kingdom which lasted from 2055 to 1786 BC. The throne was handed over to King Amenemhet I, who founded the 12th dynasty. It-towy was then the new capital, which was south of Memphis. During the rule of King Amenemhet I, Egypt once again flourished as it did in the Old Kingdom. The Ancient Egyptians then colonized Nubia and repelled the Bedouins who had infiltrated Egypt during the First Intermediate Period. Egypt also built trading relations with Syria, Palestine, and other nations. The Middle Kingdom reached its peak under Amenemhet III, and it started to fall under Amenenhet IV and continued under his sister and regent, Queen Sobekneferu, whose death marked both the end of the 12th dynasty and Middle Kingdom.

The 13th dynasty was the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period, which lasted from in Egyptian history, during which many of kings failed to take control of power. During the Second Intermediate Period Egypt, was divided into several influences. The government was relocated to Thebes, while a rival dynasty, centered on the city of Xois, seems to have existed at the same time as the 13th. A line of foreign rulers known as the Hyksos took advantage of Egypt to take control. The Hyksos rule of the 15th dynasty adopted and continued many of the existing Egyptian traditions in government as well as culture. They ruled with the line of native rulers of the 17th dynasty, who retained control over most of southern Egypt despite having to pay taxes to the Hyksos. Conflict eventually flared between the two groups, and the Thebans launched a war against the Hyksos around 1570 BC, driving them out of Egypt and ending the Second Intermediate Period.

The New Kingdom, which lasted from 1567 to 1085 BC was considered a golden age for Egypt. It was a time of wealth, prosperity, and power. After defeating the Hyksos invaders, Pharaohs expanded and maintained their Empire through both force and diplomacy. In the process, they won Egypt vast amounts of gold, influence and respect. Egypt lost its territory in Palestine and Syria for good and suffered from invasions, while its wealth was being steadily but inevitably depleted.

The next period known as the Third Intermediate Period, which lasted from 1085 to 664 BC, saw changes in Egypt. The government under the 21st dynasty pharaohs gave way to the resurgence of officials, while foreigners from Libya and Nubia took power for themselves and left a lasting effect on Egypt’s population.

The Late Period which lasted from 664 BC to 332 BC was the last period in Ancient Egypt. It started with Psammetichus who united Egypt for a little less than two centuries. Eventually, after the death of Psammetichus III, Egypt became part of the Persian Empire. Eventually there was an uprising and the Egyptians took back their land. Eventually, the Persians attacked Egypt again, and were successful. By the end of the Late Period, Alexander the Great took over Egypt, and it was annexed by Rome.

A pyramid is a structure shaped with four triangles. The pyramid was a royal tomb and considered where a spirit of a deceased pharaoh moved on. From the top of the pyramid, it was thought that the ghost would travel to the after-life and, if it so chose, could easily return to earth.

Astrology

The Ancient Egyptians were some of the first astronomers known to man. Many of their Gods/Goddesses we're based on planets or constellations. The constellation Orion was named after the Egyptian God, Orion, the god of death. The Ancient Egyptian people also used astrology to help them place buildings The three Pyramids lined up with Orion's belt to near perfection.Many Egyptian buildings were built with an astronomical orientation. The temples were also constructed in relation to the stars, zodiac, and constellations. In different cities, the buildings had different orientations based on the specific religion of that place.

Orion constellation above the Pyramids

Sources

"Ancient Egyptian Astronomy." Starteach Astronomy. N.p., n.d. Web.

History.com Staff. "Ancient Egypt." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.

Mark, Joshua J. "Pyramid." Ancient History Encyclopedia. N.p., 02 Sept. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.

"Religion in Ancient Egypt - Crystalinks." Religion in Ancient Egypt - Crystalinks. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.

"TimeMaps." TimeMaps Atlas of World History. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.

Created By
Robert Maynell
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Credits:

"Ancient Egyptian Astronomy." Starteach Astronomy. N.p., n.d. Web. History.com Staff. "Ancient Egypt." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2016. Mark, Joshua J. "Pyramid." Ancient History Encyclopedia. N.p., 02 Sept. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2016. "Religion in Ancient Egypt - Crystalinks." Religion in Ancient Egypt - Crystalinks. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2016. "TimeMaps." TimeMaps Atlas of World History. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.

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