Section One: Postwar Uncertainty
1. A New Revolution in Science
Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud had a huge impact on the 20th century.
A. Impact of Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Albert Einstein, a German-born physicist, popped off new ideas which include; space, time, energy, and matter. In 1905, Einstein stated that the speed of light is constant but space and time are not. The speed of light travels around 186,000 miles per second. The Theory of relativity is Einstein's ideas.
B. Influence of Einstein's Freudian Physchology
Freud's ideas were as spectacular as Einstein's were. He treated patients with psychological problems. He eventually constructed a theory on human minds. He believed that human behavior is irrational. His idea was weakened in faith, but his theory has spreaded widely.
2. Literature in the 1920's
World War 1 caused philosophers and writers to question their ideas about reason and progress. Many people feared the future and had doubts with the religious beliefs. T.S. Elliot, an American poet, wrote that the Western society had lost its spiritual values. He described it as "wasteland", they were drained of hope and faith. William Butler Yeats, and Irish poet, wrote "The Second Coming".
A. Writers Reflect Society's Concerns
A Czech born writer by the name of Franz Kafka wrote eerie novels after the war. Many novels show the influence of Freud's theories. The Irish born writer James Joyce gained tons of attention with his novel "Ulysses".
B. Thinkers React to Uncertainties
Jean Paul Stare played a key role in this movement. Existentialism believe they are no meaning to life... They think each person create their own meaning of life through choices and actions. The existentialist were influenced by a German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche. He wrote that Western ideas such as reason, democracy, and progress stifled peo0ple's creativity. He urged to go back to the old ways.
3. Revolution in the Arts
Many of the new paintings and music evolved after the war.
A. Artists Rebel Against Tradition
Artist were upset they wanted to depict the inner world of emotion and imagination rather than show realistic representations of objects. Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky were expressionist painters whom used bold colors and distorted or exaggerated forms. Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso were traditional African painters. Cubism transformed natural shapes into geometric forms. Surrealism; an art movement that sought to link the world of dreams with real life. This was inspired by Freud.
B. Composers Try New Styles
Composers in both classical and popular music have moved away from traditional styles. The Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, used irregular rhythms. The Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg, rejected traditional harmonies and musical scales. Jazz was It was developed by musicians, mainly African Americans, in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago. It was a huge hit in the US and Europe.
4. Society Challenges Convention
World War I had disrupted traditional social patterns. New ideas and ways of life led to a new kind of individual freedom during the 1920s.
A. Women’s Roles Change
The war meant women would have to take on new and challenging roles. They won their rights to voting... They also done away with their clothing style and switched to more comfortable and modern day styles. Margaret Sanger and Emma Goldman risked arrest by speaking in favor of birth control. As women sought new careers, the numbers of women in medicine, education, journalism, and other professions increased.
5. Technological Advances Improve Life
During World War I, scientists developed new drugs and medical treatments that helped millions of people in the postwar years.
A. The Automobile Alters Society
They have now advanced to electric starters, air-filled tires, and more powerful engines. Cars were no up to date as in highly detailed and also had chrome-plated bumpers.
B. Airplanes Transform Travel
International air travel became a huge success after the war. In 1919 two British pilots made the very first every successful flight across the Atlantic. Charles Lindbergh made a 33 hour solo flight from New York to Paris. The rich were typically the only ones who could afford to ride in a plane. Then we go to the very first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic, Amelia Earhart. This quest was completed in 1932.
C. Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment
Guglielmo Marconi conducted the first radio in 1895. But, the real deal came along during World War 1. The world's first commercial radio station was in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1920. Motion pictures were also a major hit. Many countries started producing movies. 90% of the films were made in Hollywood. Charlie Chaplin was an English born king of the silent screen. He is best known for his portrayal of the lonely little tramp bewildered by life. Later in the 1920's sound was added to the movies. Global prosperity became huge in the United States.
Section two: a worldwide depression
1. Postwar Europe
The war caused every major European country nearly go in debt.
A. Unstable New Democracies
Between 1914-1918 Europe's last absolute rulers had been overthrown. The first of the new government was formed in 1917 in Russia. The Provisional Government hoped to establish constitutional and democratic ruling. Eventually, it had fallen into a Communist dictatorship. For many and many of years king's and emperors had ruled Germany. Some of these countries had dozens of political parties. When no single party won majority, a coalition government, or also known as temporary alliance of several parties, was needed to form a parliamentary majority.
2. The Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic was Germany's new government and it was set up in 1919. It was named after the city where the national assembly met. The Weimar Republic was very weak from the start. They had several major and minor political parties.
A. Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany
Germany faced enormous economic problems. They did not increase their wartime taxes like Britain and France did. Germany printed their money to pay the expenses of the war. After the German's lost the money gradually lost it's value. Germans needed tons of money to even buy the most basic goods. In 1918 a loaf of bread cost less than a mark and by 1922 it cost more than 160 marks. People had to take wheelbarrows full of money to buy food.
B. Attempts at Economic Stability
Germany finally recovered in 1923. Thanks to the international committee which was led by Charles Dawes. The plan was to loosely provided a 200 million dollar loan to stabilize and strengthen their economy. This was put into effect a year later. By 1929 German factories were producing as much as they were before the war.
C. Efforts at a Lasting Peace
Germany's foreign minister Gustav Stresemann and France's foreign minister Aristide Briand are trying to improve their countries relationships. The two ministers met in 1925 and signed a treaty promising that France and Germany would never again make war against each other. The "spirit of Locarno" raised hope and was led to the Kellogg-Briand peace pet. Frank Kellogg whom was the U.S. Secretary of the State at the time arranged an agreement with France's Briand. Almost every country in the world signed a pledge stating "to renounce war as an instrument of national policy." Sadly, this didn't happen. The U.S. also refused to join The League of Nations.
2. Financial Collapse
In the late years of 1920 the American economic largely sustained the world economy. If the U.S. economy were to weaken, the whole world's economic system might collapse.
A. A Flawed U.S. Economy
affecThey were several weaknesses that caused many serious problems in the U.S. These problems included uneven distribution of wealth, overproduction by business and agriculture, and many Americans were just simply buying less. In 1929 American factories were huge turning points for nearly half the world. But this wealth was not evenly put out. 5 percent of the population, the richest people, received 33 percent of all personal income. 60 percent earned less than 2,000 a year. So this made the families to poor to purchase goods. So therefore, the business had to cut back as well. They had to lay off workers... During the overproduction in 1920 farmers were highly affected. Crop yields had dramatically decreased. So now they have new competition from farmers in Australia, Latin America, and Europe. This caused worldwide surplus of agricultural products which drove
B. The Stock Market Crashes
New York City's Wall Street was the financial capital of the world in 1929. Banks and investment companies lined the sidewalks... To "get in on the boom", many of the middle class people began buying stocks on margin. So, therefore they had to pay small percentages of a stock's price as a down payment and had to borrow the rest from a stockbroker. The system was very successful. But, if they did fell investors had no money to pay them off. In September investors began to think that the stock prices were very outrageous. By October 24th, the lowering of stocks had became a downward hill slide. A panic outbroke... This resulted in everyone wanting to sell their stocks. On October 29th, the prices reached an all time low. A record breaking 16 million stocks were sold.
3. The Great Depression
During this time people could not pay what they owed in their stocks, they were now worthless. After the stock market crash unemployment rate increased and industrial production, prices, and wages declined. This started "The Great Depression". By 1932 factory production had been shut off. Thousands of business failed and many banks also closed. Around 9 million people lost money they had invested in stocks. This also led to farmers losing their land. By 1933 one-fourth off all Americans were unemployed.
A. A Global Depression
This collapse sent shock all around the world as well. The bankers demanded payment from people overseas who have gotten a loan. Also, American investors withdrew their money from Europe. The goods dropped and the U.S. Congress placed high tariffs on imported goods. This policy soon backfired... Trade dropped 65%, and the unemployment rates sky rocketed.
B. Effects Throughout the World
Germany and Austria were hit hard! Austria's biggest bank collapsed, and Asia's farmers and urban workers suffered majorly. The crash also affected Latin America. American products such as; sugar, beef, and copper prices dropped drastically.
4. The world confronts the crisis
The people confronted the democracies with a big challenge to the economic and political systems. Each country met the crisis.
A. Britain Takes Steps to Improve It's Economy
As the depression hit Britain hard the government set high protective tariffs, increased the taxes, and also regulated the currency. This brought recovery, slow and steady. By 1937 the unemployment had been cut into half and production had risen.
B. France Responds to Economic Crisis
France had a self-sufficient economy unlike Britain. They were highly into agricultural and they were not very dependent on trade from foreign countries. By 1935 one million French workers were without a job. Five governments formed and failed in 1933... Political leaders were frightened. So they created a new coalition called "The Popular Front", this was a series of reforms to help workers. But this just like the other things failed as well...
C. Socialist Government Find Solutions
Denmark, Norway, and Sweden all met the challenge of the economic crisis successfully! They also built recovery programs. The Sweden government sponsored massive public work projects that kept people employed. To pay for all of these benefits the government had no choice but to tax citizens.
D. Recovery in the United States
Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected for presidency in 1932. March 4, 1933, Roosevelt, the new president of the United States longed to restore Americans faith in their nation... Therefore, he began a program called the "New Deal". This helped provide jobs. He believed government spending would create jobs and start to road to recovery. This reform was a great success.
Section three: Fascism Rises in Europe
1. Fascism's Rise in Italy
Fascism was a new, militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Fascism had no clearly defined theory or program. They pledged loyalty to an authoritarian leader who guided and brought order to the state. Fascists wore uniforms of certain color, used special salutes, and held mass rallies. Fascism was kind of similar to communism. Both were ruled by dictators. Both denied individual rights and also both were supreme. They neither practiced democracy.
A. Mussolini Takes Contorl
Fascism’s rise in Italy was fueled by bitter disappointment over the failure to win large territorial gains at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. To growing numbers of Italians, their democratic government seemed helpless to deal with the country’s problems. They longed for a new leader. A newspaper editor and politician named Benito Mussolini boldly promised to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces. He vowed to give Italy strong leadership. He founded the Fascist Party in 1919. His popularity rapidly increased as the economic worsened. So he publicly criticized Italy's government. In October 1922, about 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome. They demanded that King Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge of the government.
B. ll Duce's Leadership
Mussolini was now the new leader. So, He abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except the Fascists and secret police jailed his opponents. He sought to control the economy by allying the Fascists with the industrialists and large landowners.But, he never had total control...
2. Hitler rises to power in germany
Hitler was a little-known political leader whose early life had been marked by disappointment. When World War I broke out, Hitler found a new beginning. He volunteered for the German army.
A. The Rise of the Nazis
In 1919 Hitler joined a tiny political group. This group shared his belief that Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. Within a short time, Hitler’s success as an organizer led him to be chosen, or the leader of the Nazi party. Hitler wrote Mein Kampf book of his beliefs while in jail.
3. hitler becomes chancellor
The Nazis had become the largest political party by 1932. Conservative leaders think that they could take control of Hitler and use them for their own purposes. Hitler gained power so he used his new power to turn Germany into a totalitarian state. He also banned all other political parties and had opponents arrested. So, an elite, black-uniformed unit called the SS, or protection squad, was created. In 1934, the SS arrested and murdered hundreds of Hitler’s enemies. The secret police shocked the Germans.
A. The Fuhrer is Supreme
Hitler was wanting more than economic and political power... he wanted complete control. He wanted all the praise as well. School kids had to join the Hitler youth, only boys, or the League of German Girls.
B. Hitler Makes War on the Jews
The Nazi's hated the Jews with a passion. The Nazi's passed laws depriving the Jews from almost all of their rights, the violence toward the Jews was horrendous. On November 9, 1937 the Nazi mob attacked the Jews in their own homes and destroyed thousands of buildings. This was to be called Kristallnacht, this signaled the real start of killing the Jews.
4. other countries fall to dictators
While Fascists took power in Italy and Germany, the nations formed in eastern Europe after World War I also were falling to dictators. In Hungary in 1919, after a brief Communist regime, military forces and wealthy landowners joined to make Admiral Miklós Horthy the first European postwar dictator. Only in European nations with strong democratic traditions Britain, France, and the Scandinavian countries did democracy survive.
Section Four: Aggressors invade nations
2. Japan seeks an empire
During the 1920s, the Japanese government became more democratic. In 1922, Japan signed an international treaty agreeing to respect China’s borders. In 1928, it signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact renouncing war. Japan’s parliamentary system had several weaknesses.
A. Militarist Take Control of Japan
In the Great Depression many Japanese blamed the government. Military leaders gained support and soon won control of the country. hey wanted to solve the country’s economic problems through foreign expansion. They planned a Pacific empire that included a conquered China.
B. Japan Invades Manchuria
Japanese businesses had invested heavily in China’s northeast province, Manchuria. It had a lot of coal... So, Japanese army seized Manchuria. The Japanese attack on Manchuria was the first direct challenge to the League of Nations. The League also included the three countries that posed the greatest threat to peace to Germany, Japan, and Italy.
C. Japan Invades China
Japanese forces swept into northern China. But, China’s army led by Jiang Jieshi was no match for the the Japanese. The Japanese troops killed tens of thousands of captured soldiers and civilians in Nanjing. Forced to retreat westward, Jiang Jieshi set up a new capital at Chongqing.
2. european aggressors on the march
The League’s failure to stop the Japanese encouraged European Fascists to plan aggression of their own.
A. Mussloini Attacks Ethopia
Ethiopia was an independent nation in Africa. The Ethiopians had successfully resisted an Italian attempt at conquest during the 1800's. Mussolini ordered a massive invasion of for Italian airplanes, tanks, guns, and poison gas. Haile Selassie, urgently appealed to the League for help. Britain continued to let Italian troops and supplies pass through the British-controlled Suez Canal on their way to Ethiopia.
B. Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty
Germany would not obey these restrictions. The League failed to stop Germany from convinced Hitler to take even greater risk. The treaty had forbidden German troops to enter a 30-mile-wide zone on either side of the Rhine River. The British urged appeasement, giving in to an aggressor to keep peace. Hitler later admitted that he would have backed down if the French and British had challenged him. Hitler’s growing strength convinced Mussolini that he should seek an alliance with Germany. The two dictators reached an agreement that became known as the Rome-Berlin Axis. Germany then made an agreement with Japan. Germany, Italy, and Japan came to be called the Axis Powers.
B. Civil War Erupts in Spain
Spain had been a monarchy until 1931 when a republic was declared. In July 1936, army leaders, favoring a Fascist-style government, joined General Francisco Franco in a revolt. So, Hitler and Mussolini sent troops, tanks, and airplanes to help Franco’s forces, which were called the Nationalists.
3. democratic nations try to preserve peace
Instead of taking a stand against Fascist aggression in the 1930s, Britain and France repeatedly made concessions, hoping to keep peace.
A. United States Follows an Isolationist Policy
A lot of americans supported isolationism, which is the belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided. Isolationists argued that entry into World War I had been a costly error. Congress passed three Neutrality Acts. These laws banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war.
B. The German Reich Expands
Hitler announced to his advisers his plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich or the German Empire, in 1937. Hitler next turned to Czechoslovakia. About three million German-speaking people lived in the western border regions of Czechoslovakia called the Sudetenland.
C. Britain and France Again Choose Appeasement
France and Britain were preparing for war when Mussolini proposed a meeting of Germany, France, Britain, and Italy in Munich, Germany. The Munich Conference was held on September 29, 1938. The Czechs were not invited.
D. Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact
Britain and France asked the Soviet Union to join them in stopping Hitler’s aggression. agreement. Once bitter enemies, Fascist Germany and Communist Russia now publicly pledged never to attack one another.