GCSE PE 2016-18 Factors affecting Fitness & Principles of Training Karina Au 10N2

Factors Affecting Fitness

Age : as we get older our muscles begin to lose strength and endurance including the heart, lose flexibility, brittle bones, reduced reaction speed, continuing to exercise as well as doing flexibility exercises can maintain health

Gender : significant differences in body composition between males and females (required for child birth), Women have 30% more body fat although men have more muscle, higher performances by men in strength, explosive power and speed events, as women get older they also undergo large changes to their hormonal system which can make their bones brittle

Physique : Physical shape may influence performance in sport e.g in basketball a tall lean person may have an advantage compared to a shorter player when jumping for rebounds

Diet : In order to perform to max you need to fuel your body correctly, ensuring that you eat the correct nutrients for growth, repair and energy is important (more protein = growth, repair, more energy = carbs, water = hydration, correct amount of vitamins and minerals)

Exercise : Athletes must exercise specific body systems needed for performance to ensure that they are at their best physical fitness, on way to increase our physical fitness is to train our body systems - there are training methods and principles e.g a weightlifter would not need to train their cardiovascular system

Physical Disability : When a part of our body does not function properly it is a physical disability, exercise can however ensure that the rest of the body stays fit (There are many disability sports with the major vent being the Paralympic Games held every 4 years)

Illness and Fatigue : Being ill or tired can impact performance, fatigue and illness can make you less alert and unprepared to meet the demands of physical activity

Drug-Taking : Taking socially acceptable drugs such as cigarettes and alcohol can cause damage to vital organs and system, which in turn reduces performance, other performance enhancing drugs can increase fitness but nearly all are banned and if found in your system can lead to lengthy exclusions from the sport

Stress : Playing sport can produce short term stress and directly affect your concentration, muscle performance and decision making, leads to mental health conditions

Environment : Pollution, humidity, temperature and altitude can all affect how well you perform and overall fitness

Importance of Exercise

Exercise is essential to keeping us healthy. The UK government recommendation is half hour of exercise a day.

3 Benefit Categories of Exercise :

Physical : increased muscular strength, muscular endurance, lower heart rate, stronger cardiovascular and circulatory system, prevents obesity and obesity related diseases (physique is improved), increased life expectancy, reduced risk of illness

Mental : happiness, aids focus and concentration, periods of time, reduces stress, improvement in confidence of self-esteem

Social : meeting new people, getting to know people or making friends by playing the same sport or doing exercise together, co-operation teamwork and communication skills are improved

Training Programmes

When people decide to get fit, the best method is to create a training programme that meets the needs of the individual and their goals.

  • A gymnast and basket-baller would have different programmes as they have different aspects which are essential, varying body composition and muscle fibre types
  • A person should use a variety of training methods to achieve their exercise goals

SPOR Training Principles

Specificity : activity specific practices for the sport you are training for, an athlete needs to identify the muscles as they need to train as well as the energy system (aerobic or anaerobic), they may also identify with some additional training needs such as flexibility training or power training

Progression : Main aim/goal is to progress fitness, needs to be gradual as to much too soon can cause injury e.g running 5 miles to 30 miles within a day

Overload : To ensure that the athlete makes progress we must gradually make the training programme more difficult - apply the FIT principles - Frequency : increase the number of sessions (how often) ; Intensity : increase the resistance or speed of the work out (how hard) ; Time : increase the amount of time per training session (how long)

Reversibility : If training stops then fitness can be quickly lost e.g (long-term) injury which will lead to muscles shrinking aka atrophy

Aerobic Threshold 60-80% & Anaerobic Threshold 80%-100%

Overtraining : leads to many dangers with symptoms e.g illness, fatigue, muscle soreness, loss of appetite, poor performance, injuries from performing , anxiety and low motivation, we need to allow time for body to recover and rest to heal muscular soreness and mentally prepare for the next session

Task 1 : Applying to a Scenario

Scenario - Mo Farath is training for the upcoming HK Marathon and in order ot incresase his fitness he needs to apply the principles of training

Task - Plan a mini training program for Mo taking into account SPOR

Reversibility - explain what would happen if Mo was not to follow your advice or he has injury or illness which prevents him from training

It will lead to reversibility

Over training - explain what would happen if Mo was to overtrain e.g in a week he tried to do three 10 mile runs after being out of training for 6 months

Possible injury and disability to play sport, hence leading to reversibility

Task 2 : Applying Scenario to myself

Sport : Tennis

Skill in Sport : Ground Strokes

Progression x 3 - Week 1 only ground strokes 'down the line' with minimal footwork only from center mark baseline to single's sideline ; Week 3 ground strokes 'cross court' with more footwork (inclusive of side stepping) from center mark baseline to double's sideline ; Week 6 mixture of both 'down the line' and 'cross court' ground strokes with footwork from singles' sideline right to left

Overload - Week 1 frequency twice a week for 45 minutes per session ; Week 3 frequency thrice a week for 1 hr 15 min per session ; Week 6 five times a week for 1 hr 30 min

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Karina Au

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