The light-bulb, invented by the American Thomas Edison and the Briton Joseph Swan, permitted homes and cities to be lit up by electric lights. By the 1880s, electricity-powered streetcars and subways had been built in major European cities. Electricity also effected the factory. Conveyor belts, cranes, machines, and machine tools could all be powered by electricity and used anywhere. Due to electricity, all countries could now enter the industrial age, not just major world powers. A revolution in communications began when Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. Another major event was when Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901.