The Age of Inquiry Sione hill

The Renaissance

The Renaissance was a rebirth, as they called it. it was a period in the European civilization where immediately following the middle ages. The Renaissance brought the discoveries and explorations of new continents.And it also brought new ideas, with new and flourishing art . [Evidence: European History , The Encyclopaedia of Britannica]

The Protestant Reformation

What was the Protestant Reformation , it was the time , where the Catholic Church split into 3 branches. Why did this conflict take place , and who started it from the beginning? The Pope of the Catholic Church was becoming too powerful.

Before Martin Luther there was ,John Wycliffe and Jan Hus they were Reformers who criticized the Catholic Church. They were were called Heretics

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He was a reformer of the Catholic church, he Criticized the church , because he didn't like how the Catholic church was becoming so powerful. Because there was some things that the church was doing that was uncalled for like making people pay for the indulgences, or even paying to confess their sins.

Martin Luther was a German theologian who brought on the Reformation by demanding changes in the Catholic Church. But what angered Martin about the Catholic Church was 1. The bible did not give authority to the pope to interpret scripture. 2. The people had to pay for indulgences.3. The people also had to pay to confess their sins to Pope. So for Martin Luther to get his word out, He wrote 95 theses, that wa against indulgences and church abuses nailed to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church. [https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/1998\]

John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a supporter of Martin Luther, he published a book on religious beliefs. He believed that God choose if you were going to heaven or hell at the very start. John Calvin was a very strict person, he started a church Called the Calvinist Church.

The Counter Reformation

The Counter Reformation was a course that the Catholic Church started on to stop these nobles from leaving the church because, they were following Martin Luther and his followers.

The Council of Trent

The Council of Trent was the a general council following the excommunication of the German Reformation leader Martin Luther, Pope Clement VII held back for fear of renewed attacks on his supremacy. France, too, preferred inaction, afraid of increasing German power. Clements successor, Paul III, however, was convinced that Christian unity and effective church reform could come only through a council. After his first attempts were frustrated, he convoked a council at Trent (northern Italy), which opened on December 13, 1545.

The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.

Galen was a Greek Physician Who learned about anatomy through the dissections of apes, pigs, clinical observation , and also through rough examination of patient's. Galen was forbidden by roman law to not dissect human corpses, so that meant that his knowledge was limited. [https://databases.abc-clio.com/Authentication/LogOn?returnUrl=%2F]

Mansur Ibn Muhammad Ibn llyas

Mansur was a physician in present day who wrote , a book on Mansur Anatomy around 1384, the book included chapters on the bones, nerves, muscles , veins, and arteries. Islamic Doctors studied Greek and Roman texts , like those written by Galen. But they improved upon those texts based on there own observations

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Andreas Vesalius

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Andreas Vesalius [1514-1564] was a Renaissance physician born in Flanders in Western Europe. He went to a medical school where it was required for students to study the medical advances made by Arab Doctors. In Addition to reading other writings , Vesalius decided to do his own dissections of human corpses, something Galen was not able to do

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Galileo Galilee

Galileo Galilee was born on [Feb 15, 1564 in Pisa , Italy ,]. He was a mathematics professor who constructed a telescope and supported the Copernican views of the solar system. Galileo was accused twice of heresy by the church for his beliefs and tried for inquisition.

Absolutism can be described as a political system in which all the, authority rests with one ruler, which means no limit or checks to there power.

LOUIS XIV

LOUIS XIV, believed that it was his divine right to rule, so he went onto brake the french precedent to establish himself as the absolute monarch,Appropriately deeming himself as the sun God. [https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com]

JAMES I

James the first, was the first king of Britain, England, Scotland, and also Irland. King James was found ill fated in the early 17 century. It was a somewhat difficult man who never really understood his subjects , but James established a precedent that his heirs followed with disastrous results. [https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com]

PETER THE GREAT

Peter The Great was credited for dragging Russia out of Medieval Times, such as extent to his death in 1975,He changed the government, and strengthened the army, created a navy and increased the subjugation and subjection of the peasants. Without any doubt, Peter the Great’s childhood toughened his outlook on life and people. His life was constantly under threat from factions surrounding the two widows of his father. When his father, Alexis, died in January 1676, Peter’s elder brother succeeded as Theodore III. His succession was legal and no-one could dispute it. Theodore died in 1682. [https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com]

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment was a period where politics, philosophy, science and communications were radically reoriented during the course of the “long 18th century” (1685-1815) as part of a movement referred to by its participants as the Age of Reason, or simply the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers in Britain, in France and throughout Europe questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change. The Enlightenment produced numerous books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions. The American and French Revolutions were directly inspired by Enlightenment ideals and respectively marked the peak of its influence and the beginning of its decline. The Enlightenment ultimately gave way to 19th-century Romanticism. [https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com]

John Locke (1632-1704) laid much of the groundwork for the Enlightenment and made central contributions to the development of liberalism. Trained in medicine, he was a key advocate of the empirical approaches of the Scientific Revolution. In his “Essay Concerning Human Understanding,” he advanced a theory of the self as a blank page, with knowledge and identity arising only from accumulated experience. His political theory of government by the consent of the governed as a means to protect “life, liberty and estate” deeply influenced the United States’ founding documents. His essays on religious tolerance provided an early model for the separation of church and state. [https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com]

Born in 1643 in Woolsthorpe England, Sir Isaac Newton began developing his influential theories on light, calculus and celestial mechanics while on break from Cambridge University. Years of research culminated with the 1687 publication of “Principia,” a landmark work that established the universal laws of motion and gravity. Newton’s second major book, “Opticks,” detailed his experiments to determine the properties of light. Also a student of Biblical history and alchemy, the famed scientist served as president of the Royal Society of London and master of England’s Royal Mint until his death in 1727. https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com]

Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was an English scientist and lawyer. Bacon was an instrumental figure in the Renaissance and Scientific Enlightenment. In particular, Bacon developed and popularised a scientific method which marked a new scientific rigour based on evidence, results and a methodical approach to science. He is widely considered to be the father of empiricism and the Scientific Revolution of the Renaissance period. https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com]

Rene Descartes

Rene Descartes 1596 – 1650) French philosopher and mathematician. Descartes is considered the founder of modern philosopher for successfully challenging many of the accepted wisdoms of the medieval scholastic traditions of Aristotelian philosophy. Descartes promoted the importance of using human reason to deduct truth. This principle of reason was an important aspect of the Enlightenment and the development of modern thought. His work in mathematics, was important for the later work of Isaac Newton.

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Baruch Spinoza

(1632-1677) Baruch Spinoza was a Jewish-Dutch philosopher. He was an influential rationalist, who saw the underlying unity in the universe. He was critical of religious scriptures, and promoted a view that the Divine was in all, and the Universe was ordered, despite its apparent contradictions. His philosophy influenced later philosophers, writers and romantic poets, such as Shelley and Coleridge.

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