a.)Temperature vs Heat: We often think that heat and temperature are the same thing. However this is not the case. Heat and Temperature are related to each other but are different concepts. Heat is the total energy of molecular motion in a substance while temperature is a measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance.
b.) Laws of thermodynamics:
* The First Law often known as Law of conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system.
* The second law of thermodynamics states that any isolated system always increases.
* The Third law of thermodynamics regards the properties of systems in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature.
c.) Calories and specific heat:
* Another common energy unit is the calorie , which is defined as the amount of energy (heat) needed to increase the temperature of one gram of water.
Specific heat: is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. The relationship between heat and temperature does not apply if a phase change is encountered, because the heat added or removed during a phased change does not change the temperature.
a.) Up-cycling vs. down-cycling:
Up-cycling: Making something more valuable through recycling process.
Down-cycling: Not all products can be made into lower quality equal products when recycled.
b.)Types of plastics and issues:
(PET): Polyethylene Terephthylene
(HDPE): High-Density Polyethylene
(PVC): Polyvinyl Chloride
(LDPE): Low-density polyethylene
c.) Recycling metals and papers:
Recycling metals: closed loop recycling
Recycling paper: must be down-cycled all the time
a). Soil profiles:
O-Horizon: "The organic matter"-It is as thick as 0-2 feet and depth of the horizon depends on the amount of vegetation.
A-Horizon: "Top Soil"-biological life is found in this area, at depths of 2-10 feet.
E-Horizon: not all soils contain an E-Horizon. Light and color (no nutrients).
B-Horizon: (Subsoil) 10-30 feet rich in minerals and clay.
C-Horizon: "The Regolith Horizon"- which means no organic material (large rocks).
R-Horizon: (The Rock)- Solid.
b.) Sand, silt, and clay (soil texture)
Classifying our soil in three sizes: Sand, silt and clay.
Sand: Largest particles/soft.
Clay: Cannot be seen and it is an atomic structure.
Silt: Smaller particles/smooth to the touch.
* Nearly all soil is a mix of those 3 things.
c.) Issues with soil and soil properties:
1. Fine Textured Soil- Mainly made from silt and clay.
- Plant roots cannot use this water
- Soil holds on to water
2. Coarse Textured Soil - High amounts of sand, (water flows quickly).
3. Loamy Soil - When we mix sand,silt, and clay.
a). Micro and Macro
Macro-nutrients: are the structural and energy-giving caloric components of our foods that most of us are familiar with. They include carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Micro-nutrients: are the vitamins, minerals, trace elements, phytochemicals, and antioxidants that are for good health.
Inorganic- are manufactured or we mind.
Organic- Complete fertilizers. They're rich inorganic material, help soil.
c.) Deficiencies and toxicities
a.) Properties of Water:
* Water is polar because one end is negative and another end is positive.
* Polar Molecule -one end slightly positive.
* Hydrogen bonds that result from waters polarity responsible for many of waters.
* High-specific heat
* High specific heat of vaporization
b.) Types of water pollution:
* Nutrient Pollution: Some waste water, fertilizers and sewage contain high levels of nutrients.
* Surface water pollution
* Oxygen depleting
* Micro-biological water
* Suspended Matter
* Chemical water pollution
* Oil Spilage
c.) Water treatment (removing pollution):
d.) Water Issues
ATOMS AND IONS:
a.) Atomic Theory: Scientific Theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
b.) Ions: Sometimes atoms gain or lose electrons. The atom then loses or gains a "negative" charge.
*Positive Ion- Occurs when an atom loses an electron, for example sodium loses one electron to become stable which results in an ion that has a positive charge.
* Negative Ion- Created by an electron chain and it is attracted to the anode they can also be formed when a metal loses electrons. Negatives can bring the particles together and create an ionic compound, such as sodium chloride.
c.) Ionic Compounds: Is a chemical compound comprising ions held by electrostatic forces. They are made up of ions.
* The compound is neutral overall, but consists of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions.