Spanish 1 Midterm By:daniel garcia-lópez

EL Alfabeto
  • -The Spanish language is written using the Spanish alphabet, which is the Latin script with one additional letter: eñe "ñ", for a total of 27 letters.
  • -The Spanish alphabet contains 27 letters and 30 different sounds. It includes the ch (che), the LL (elle), the single vibration R and the multiple vibration RR. The alphabet also features a unique letter that has nearly come to symbolize the language itself: the ñ.
  • The letters "b" and "v" are pronounced so similarly in Spanish that sometimes in order to avoid confusion "b" is called be grande and "v" is called ve pequeña or something similar. It's not uncommon in some Latin American countries to see signs with spelling errors involving "b" and "v" such as Se Bende instead of the correct Se Vende.
Spanish Alphabet

Numbers and Time

Numbers and time

Seasons and Weather

Season and weather

In Spanish, the four seasons of the year are:

  • el invierno — winter
  • la primavera — spring
  • el verano — summer (Another word for summer, el estío, has mostly literary use.)
  • el otoño — autumn or fall

Weather in Spanish

Hace frío.

  • It’s cold.

Hace calor.

  • It’s hot.

Hace viento.

  • It’s windy

Hace sol.

  • It’s sunny.

Hace buen tiempo.

  • The weather is good.
Regular Verbs

As we covered in the section on Spanish verbs, all Spanish verbs end in one of the following ways:

  • -ar (examples: amar, asar, borrar, estudiar, hablar, jugar, saltar, tomar)
  • -er (beber, comer, comprender, leer, temer, vender)
  • -ir (mentir, pedir, sentir, subir, vivir)

Regular verbs (we'll leave the irregular verbs for later) follow the same pattern as other verbs with which they share endings. The root of the verb (the part up until the -ar, -er or -ir) stays the same, while the ending is replaced according to the subject.

Verbs Ser and Estar

Ser and Estar
  • The Spanish verbs ser and estar both mean to be,* and are a difficult grammar point for many students of Spanish. In the introductory lesson, we looked at the basic differences between the two verbs. Let's study this in more detail.
  • Ser is from the Latin word esse, essence. Ser is also a noun that means life or human being. Thus ser is used to describe the essence of a noun: inherent qualities, factual information, and permanent or long-term attributes that seldom if ever change.
  • Soy contento. I'm happy (I'm a happy person).
  • Estoy contento. I'm happy (I feel happy right now).
  • Lupe es sana. Lupe is healthy (she's a healthy person in general).
  • Lupe está sana. Lupe is healthy (she had been sick) / Lupe looks healthy (today).
  • Juan es guapo. Juan is handsome (he's a handsome man).
  • Juan está guapo. Juan looks handsome (today).
  • Somos optimistas. We are optimists.
  • Estámos optimistas. We're optimistic (at the moment).
  • Mi abuelo es viejo. My grandfather is old.
  • Mi abuelo está viejo. My grandfather looks old (today - maybe he's tired).
  • Some adjectives have distinctly different meanings depending on which verb they are used with.
  • estar ser
  • aburrido bored boring
  • bueno tasty good
  • cachondo aroused sexy
  • cansado tired tiresome
  • listo ready smart/clever
  • rico delicious rich
  • seguro sure/certain safe

SPANISH CONVO.

  • ¿Cómo te llamas?/¿Cómo se llama usted? (What’s your name?)
  • ¿De dónde eres?/¿De dónde es usted? (Where are you from?)
  • ¿Tienes hermanos?/¿Tiene hermanos? (Do you have brothers and sisters?)
  • ¿Qué te gusta hacer?/¿Qué le gusta hacer? (What do you like to do?)
  • En tu opinión/su opinión, ¿cuál es la solución a los problemas del medio ambiente? (What do you think is the solution to environmental problems?)

Credits:

Created with images by Efraimstochter - "spain flag flutter"

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