Before the Civil War, the nation created the Black Codes, which prohibited the education of slaves. Many thought that if African Americans were educated then they may think of themselves as smart or equal.
After the end of the Civil War in the 1860's, with the freedom of slavery, many all black schools were created. This was the start of formal public education for african american children.
In 1896, the Plessy V. Ferguson supreme court case rules the term, "separate, but equal" which made segregation legal. This also applied to schools. From now on, schools were officially separated into black and white schools.
1954- Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States in charge of the Brown v. Board of education case. This historic case ruled that separate schools by race was not equal in anyway.
1957- Little Rock Nine. Nine african american students become the first to enroll in a previously all white school. The governor of Arkansas sent his national guard to try to prohibit those students from enrolling. President Eisenhower sends in the United States national guard to protect those students as they enter the high school.
1962- Integration of University of Mississippi. James Meredith became the first african american man to be accepted into an integrated school. There were mass mobs waiting for him on the first day of classes. Riots against him began and 2 people died.
1968- Strike at San Francisco State University. African american students demanded better access to higher education. In response to the strike, the university created the nation's first College of Ethical Studies.
2012- President Obama signs the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans executive order. It is used to increase opportunities for all african american students and tried to ensure that they all get a fair education and a chance to go to college.