unit 4 vocabulary The legislative system

continuous body: Governing unit whose seats are never all up for election at the same time

implied powers: those delegated powers of the national government that are suggested by the expressed powers set out in the constitution

Direct tax: a tax that must be paid by the person on whom it is levied

bankruptcy: the legal proceeding by which a bankrupt person's assets are distributed among those to whom he or she owes debts

Patent: a license issued to an inventor granting the exclusive right to manufacture , use, or sell his or her invention for a limited period of time

Necessary and proper clause: constitutional clause that gives congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers

perjury: the act of lying under oath

speaker of the house: the presiding officer of the house of representatives, chosen by and from the majority party in the house

party caucus: a closed meeting of a party's house or senate members

standing committee: permanent committee in a legislative body to which bills in a specified subject matter area are referred

joint committee: legislative committee composed of members of both houses

bill: a proposed law presented to a legislative body for consideration

concurrent resolution: a statement of position on an issue used by the house and senate acting jointly; does not have to be force of law and does not require the president's signature

discharge petition: a procedure enabling members to force a bill that has been pigeonholed in committee onto the floor for consideration

quorum: least number of members who must be present for a legislative body to conduct business

filibuster: various tactics aimed at defeating a bill in a legislative body by preventing a final vote

Veto: chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a legislature

Constituency: the people and interests that an elected official represents

Inherent Powers: powers the constitution is presumed to have delegated to the national government because it is the government of a sovereign state within the world community

Indirect Tax: a tax levied on one party but passed on to another for payment

Naturalization: the legal process by which citizens of one country become citizens of another

Eminent domain: power of a government to take private property for public use

Censure: issue a formal condemnation

President Pro tempore: the member of the united states senate, or of the upper house of a state's legislature, chosen to preside in the absence of the president of the senate

Floor leader: members of the house and senate picked by their parties to carry out party decisions and steer legislative action to meet party goals

Select committee: legislative committee created for a limited time and for some specific purpose

Conference committee: temporary joint committee created to reconcile any differences between the two houses' versions of a bill

Joint resolution: a proposal for action that has the force of law when passed; usually deals with special circumstances or temporary matters

Resolution: a measure relating to the business of either house, or expressing an opinion; does not have the force of law and does not require the president's signature

Committee of the Whole: a committee that consists of an entire legislative body; used for a procedure in which legislative body expedites its business by resolving itself into a committee of itself

Engrossed: to print a bill in its final form

Cloture: procedure that may be used to limit or end floor debate in a legislative body

Pocket Veto: type of veto a chief executive may use after a legislature has adjourned; when the chief executive does not sign or reject a bill within the time allowed to do so

Expressed Powers: those delegated powers of the national government that are spelled out, expressly, in the constitution

Consensus: general agreement among various groups on fundamental matters; broad agreement on public questions

Commerce power: exclusive power of congress to regulate interstate and foreign trade

Copyright: the exclusive, legal right of a person to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her own literary, musical, or artistic creations

Impeach: to bring formal charges against a public official; the house of representatives has the sole power to impeach civil officers of the united states

Acquit: find not guilty of a charge

Subpoena: an order for a person to appear and to produce documents or another requested materials

Whip: assistants to the floor leaders in the house and senate, responsible for monitoring and marshalling votes

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