India & China By: Timber Bossard & Tristan Griffin

India

Main Religions

Hinduism and Buddhism

Current number of practitioners

80% of India’s population consider themselves Hindus, 30 million more Hindus live outside of India. (900 million Hindus world wide)

Central Deities

1. Ganesha- He is the son of Shiva and Pervati. Ganesha is depicted to have big ears, a curved trunk, as well as a huge pot belly, has a head similar head of a human. He is the destroyer of all obstacles and evil. He is also known for his wisdom.

Ganesha

2. Shiva: Most powerful, he is the Godhead of the Hindu trinity. Shiva is the most complex and the phallic symbol for worshiping.

Shiva

3. Krishna: This Deity is “The great exponent of the Gita” on the god heads of the Hindu trinity. He meant to be the closest to your heart out of all the masses. “Krishna is blue skinned and has influenced thought, life, and culture in Myriad ways”. He is highly involved in literature, painting, sculpting, music, dancing, religion and philosophy.

Krishna

4. Vedas: Vedas is a text, and is actually the most ancient in Hindu history. They believe these scriptures to be gods words. Scholars estimate them to be written around 1200 to 2000 BC. “Vedas include the Samhita’s, a collection of hyms to god; the Brahmana’s, a prayer guide for priests; the medication practices and the upanishadu, which expose Hindu Philosophy

Vedas

4 Central Beliefs

Dharma: Refers to the “righteous way of living “. It explains how everyone has duties in life, also to how the universe works.

Atman: The concept in which everyone possesses an internal self. They believe in the idea of soul & spirit. They believe Atman is immortal, but goes to bodies temporarily.

Karma: This is the concept in which a human has the same reaction received as given.

Samara: This is known as the rebirth; they believe you only die temporarily. “The Hindus ultimate goal is to transcend the constant death & rebirth cycle”.

Development of a written language

The first Indian written language developed in the Indus valley around 2600 B.C. “later Indian scripts, like Brahmi and kharoshi were developed to write both official and local inscriptions, religious texts and administrative documents”. The earliet writing goes by the name of Harappan, but unfortunately we still cannot read it. The early writing was mainly used to mark property in order to prevent others from stealing it and to keep track of things. The writing was in pictograph form, similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics. They were then invaded around 1500 B.C. and nobody wrote for the next 1000 years. Harappan was forgotten. People began writing again around 500 B.C. but they got an idea west Asia to have an alphabetic format. They then actually learned the alphabet from Iranian traders along the silk road. The letters were and are currently called Brahmi.

Two current spoken languages

English and Hindu

Three Historical Scientific Achievments

1. “Zero was discovered in about the second century B.C. from the very beginning Indian mathematics considered zero as a separate numeral…the mathematical implications of zero and infinite were fully realized in the field of astronomy”.

2. “Yoga was developed by Patanjali, a revered sage in ancient India” it was known to be a form of physical medicine to heal diseases.

3. “Ayurveda was developed by Charaka”, he was considered to be the father of medicine. He conciliated his findings in his book Charakasmitha. Ayurveda is a Hindu system of medicine based on the balance of bodily system using yogic breathing, herbal treatment and use of diet.

Social Cast System

The caste system in India divides Hindus into four main categories Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Brahmins are known to be priest and teachers. Kshatriyas are warriors and rulers. Vaishyas are farmers, traders and merchants. Shudras are laborers. Daltis are the out castes and are street sweepers and latrine cleaners

Historical Role of Women

Woman in India where versatile in aristocratic family’s having the ability to hold aristocratic offices and also having a good education but outside that it was common for woman to suffer ignominy, deprivation, and hurdles. They were considered a higher class and were to be given great conditions, but they were held to a higher intellectual and spiritual standard.

Importance of the Family vs. Importance of the Individual

In India, family is the glue of the community and the most important overall. “the Indian family has been a dominant institution in the life of the individual and life of the community. For the Hindu family, extended family and kinship ties are utmost important”.

Social Mobility

There are 2 types of social mobility In India. Their names are vertical mobility and horizontal mobility. Vertical refers to the movement of a group or an individual from one social stratum to another, either upward or downward. Meaning some groups may have a higher position in society than others. Horizontal refers to an individual may shift from one social group to another, for example one may shift from agricultural labor to factory labor, same class just different group.

Monsoon

To start off, a monsoon is a geographic event that is caused when the land is colder than the water. This then creates gradient pressure from land to sea. This then causes winds etc. This effects India because this almost changes the season because is covers land with rain showers. This is much needed moisture in which eases tension and relieves farmers. BUT the effects of a late monsoon causes negative alterations to crops such as corn, sugar, and rice. The monsoon normally covers whats called the traditional grain belt in the Gandes River Basin. Due to current technology and irrigational systems, they don’t normally rely on the monsoon, but they definitely aren’t complaining when it does come. This normally occurs around the same time every year.

India's Colonial Past

What country Colonized and Controlled India?

Britain was the greatest dominant power in India (1800). The first major business was the Eastern India company. This was a trading company. Settlements were established in Bombay, Calcutta, and madras to take and exploit India’s cotton.

When did the colonizing country first arrive in India/ When did the colonizing country officially take control of India?

They arrived in the early 1600’s, by 1765 they had almost complete control over india.

How long was India controlled?

They were in control for nearly 200 years. They were ruled because Britain used to make a trading business and set up companies all around.

What was the main reason that India was colonized?

India had a great economy unlike north America. They lacked trade and industries.

When did India gain its independence?

On August 125, 1947 but on June 15, 1947 the British house had an act called the Indian independence act that was passed. India was divided in to two, which were India and Pakistan. This act claimed independence for each domain

Who was a pivotal figure in India's Independence Movement?

Mahatma Ghandi (1869-1948), he led a non-violent, peaceful protest, such as a boycott taken place in the salt march. He created unity in India. He was assassinated in 1948 by a Hindu fanatic.

Current Population of India

1,333,473,620

Current Rank of the Country's in the World According to their Gross Domestic Product(GDP)

They are ranked number 7 with 2,250.990 billion

Current from of Government

Their government system is Parliamentary. “a parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from the legislature and is also held accountable to that legislature. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is normally a different person from the head of government”

Current Leader

Pranab Mukherjee, he is known to be the Prime Minister

Current place and effects of thee Caste System

The Caste System basically divides the Hindus into 4 major categories. They are the Shundras, Kshatriyas, Brahmins, and the Vaishyas. This causes discrimination and a lowering self-esteem due to other castes looking down on each other. There is little to no communications between the castes. It is still used to determine marriages. People have been doing massive movements and to stop the caste system. But it still plays a huge role in Indian society.

Role of Women is Society Today

In today’s Indian society, Indian women are constantly taking part in movements and social functions to build women up. They are beginning to participate in schooling, attending parties, and even being active participants in political parties

One Widespread challenge that India is facing as a nation today

“High poverty, high populations, and high corruption” It is considered one of the most populated countries and most corrupt countries.

China

Main Religion

Buddhism

Origin

The origin of Buddhism points to one man, Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha, who was born in Lumbini (in present-day Nepal) during the 5th century BCE. Rather than the founder of a new religion, Siddhartha Gautama was the founder and leader of a sect of wanderer ascetics (Sramanas), one of many sects that existed at that time all over India. This sect came to be known as Sangha to distinguish it from other similar communities.

Current number of practitioners

360 million practitioners of Buddhism

The five great Buddha's (Main Beliefs)

1. The white father Vairocana transforms anger

Vairocana

2. The blue father Aksobhya transforms ignorance and stupidity

Aksobhya

3. The yellow father Ratnasambhava transforms pride

Ratnasambhava

4. The red father Amitabha transforms passion

Amitabha

5. The green father Amoghasiddhi transforms jealousy

Buddhists believe in reincarnation meaning that they believe that people are reborn again after dying. They believe that people continually go through the cycle of birth, living, death and rebirth.

The three trainings or practices in Buddhism are sila, samadhi and prajna. Sila is the practice of virtue, morality and good conduct. Sila is the classic "golden rule" of Christianity, do unto others as you would wish them to do unto you. Samadhi is the mental development of the person and refers to concentration and meditation. Buddhists believe that developing one's mind is the best way to lead to personal freedom. Prajna is the discernment or enlightenment where wisdom emerges into a person's calm and pure mind.

Inventions is China

Great Inventions of ancient China: the compass, gunpowder, paper making, and printing, were among the most important technological advances, only known in Europe by the end of the Middle Ages

Main Language of China

Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ). and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China. Hanyu, or Han language, spans eight primary dialect groups, that differ from each other morphologically and phonetically to such a degree that dialects from different regions can often be mutually unintelligible. The languages most studied and supported by the state include Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang.

Development of a written language

It is not known when Chinese writing originated, but it apparently began to develop in the early 2nd millennium BC. The earliest known inscriptions, each of which contains between 10 and 60 characters incised on pieces of bone and tortoiseshell that were used for oracular divination, date from the Shang (or Yin) dynasty (18th–12th century BC), but, by then it was already a highly developed system, essentially similar to its present form. By 1400 BC the script included some 2,500 to 3,000 characters, most of which can be read to this day. Written Chinese (Chinese: 中文; pinyin: zhōngwén) comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language. Chinese characters do not constitute an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Rather, the writing system is roughly logosyllabic; that is, a character generally represents one syllable of spoken Chinese and may be a word on its own or a part of a polysyllabic word. The characters themselves are often composed of parts that may represent physical objects, abstract notions,] or pronunciation.

Social Caste System & Confucianism

Born in China in 551 BCE, Confucius lived during a time of political turmoil. Several independent kingdoms divided the area of today’s China. Each fought for dominance. Many people suffered hunger, displacement, and death because of the fighting. Amidst this anarchy, Confucius sought to bring peace and order to society. Although he hoped to accomplish this goal by serving as a high minister in government, Confucius never obtained such a position. Instead, he strived to teach others the way to live in harmony with those around you as well as principles of good governance. His teachings eventually permeated society and he became one of China’s greatest social philosophers and teachers.

Confucius’ teachings focused on the mortal world of rulers and the ruled rather than life after death. In Confucianism, order and peace emanated from the top. Rulers achieved order and harmony in their kingdom when they abided by strict moral codes and sought after virtues. These virtues included humanness, filial piety, ritual, humility, loyalty, and diligence. Confucius also taught that the safety of a society depended on the people maintaining and strengthening five key relationships. These relationships include the following: ruler to subject, father to son, husband to wife, elder to younger, and friend to friend.

Role of Women in China

Few women got jobs outside the home, and when they did, the jobs usually consisted of sewing, weaving and spinning. Some peasant women were forced to work in the fields with their husbands. Either way, it was uncommon to see women of ancient China away from their homes.

Women of ancient China did not have a say on how they married either. All marriages were arranged and considered carefully. Before arranging marriages, the parents of the children would always seek the help of an astrologer. The job of the astrologer was to refer to the birth charts of the children and determine if the two kids would be compatible. In ancient China, compatibility was based on the date and time of birth. Regardless of what the astrologer says, it was always up to the father if the marriage was approved.

When the women met their in-laws, they bowed and served tea. This was a sign that they now belonged to their husband's family. It was common for the women to become the servants of their mother-in-laws.

Although women are longer repressed by the immobilizing foot-binding tradition practiced for generations, they now experience different limitations and social pressures. Whilst communism pushed men and women to work together, China’s traditional Confucianism, which berates “strong women,” lingers. This ideological contradiction results in a society wherein female high-flyers experience difficulty finding partners and women face prejudice in higher education and the workplace. Consequently, financial constraints are common, and many women admit that financial incentives are often more important than personal compatibility when searching for a partner.

Family Hierarch

The Chinese family structure has traditionally been rigid and hierarchical, with elders still receiving the largest degree of reverence, respect and obedience, a practice that has continued into the modern age. And while Confucius may have preached that showing respect and filial piety to one’s elders did in no way require blind obedience, in actual practice throughout Chinese history and today, many parents and grandparents expect their children/grandchildren to do as they are told. Within the traditional Chinese family structure, each family member has a specific form of address in Chinese, with different forms of address for older and younger brother, sisters, aunts, uncles, grandfathers and grandmothers, on both the maternal and paternal sides of a family.

And while this naturally can appear complicated to the uninitiated Westerner, in fact, it was and is incredibly important to the Chinese family structure. A significant aspect of life in the Chinese family is showing the proper amount of respect to the appropriate members of the family. For example, a father’s elder brother will accordingly rank higher than his younger brother, and there exist separate terms to differentiate the two, to both members of the family as well as to outsiders. And these terms also offer insight into the position of a girl within the traditional Chinese family unit.

Role of the Yellow and Yangtze River

yellow River drainage basin is the birthplace of Chinese nation and meanwhile it is the cradle of Chinese civilization. In this vast cradle, Yellow River civilization, which is the principal part of the whole Chinese civilization and plays a crucial role in the history of civilization development, grew with vitality. It had stood the test of almost all kinds of upheavals and difficulties, and finally created the continuous Chinese civilization.

It provided fertile soil along its river banks and provided great economy in the areas around the rivers.

Today it is china main agricultural areas along the rivers where they replenish soil and plants grown in loose soil prosper.

Control and Colonization of China

Most of the Western imperialism in China happened through forcing trade rights rather than through land grabs. After losing both Opium Wars, China was forced to open more ports for trading. China and the Netherlands traded the region that is now Taiwan back and forth over the centuries. China was also forced to give up control of Korea to Japan.

Great Britain took Hong Kong from China after winning the First Opium War and took southern Kowloon after winning the Second Opium War. Portugal claimed the Macau region and kept it until 1999. France took over the region that is now northern Vietnam from China by winning the Sino-French War.

First colonization of China

1832 is when Britain first arrived in China and 1842 is when China was officially taken over or colonized

Main Reason China was Colonized and the Length China was Controlled

: China was colonized because of the British demand for Chinese tea silk and porcelain on the British trading market. China was controlled from 1842-1949.

Independence of China

The People's Republic of China was declared, the Japanese were driven out of parts of the country they occupied. Two other important dates are associated with Chinese independence, according to the CIA World Fact Book. The 221 B.C.E. era marks the year in which all of China was unified under the Qin Dynasty, and January 1, 1912, is the date on which the Qing Dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China.

Independence Day or National Days are perhaps the most important day for a nation to honor as a national holiday. For many nations the date of Independence Day may be of a battle fought to gain freedom or the birth of a national hero who helped the country in its struggle for independence. The Chinese celebrate their Independence Day on the 1st of October every year, marking the foundation of the People's Republic of China. The Central People's Government passed the Resolution on the National Day of the People's Republic of China on December 2, 1949 and declared October 1 as the National Day or Independence Day of china.

Current population in China

1,384,993,973

China GDP Ranking

Currently china is 2nd in global GDP for the economy

Current Form of Government in China

The primary organs of state power are the National People's Congress (NPC), the President, and the State Council. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of Vice Premiers (now four), five State Councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), and 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions. During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separate party and state functions, with the party deciding general policy and the state carrying it out. The attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are also the leaders of the party. This dual structure thereby creates a single centralized focus of power.

Xi Jinping current leader of china their president.

Woman's rights in China

rise of the People's Republic of China, which publicly committed itself to gender equality. Efforts the new Communist government made toward gender equality were met with resistance in the historically male-dominated Chinese society, and obstacles continue to stand in the way of women seeking to gain greater equality in China.

Major Problem of China

Since the end of 2000, China has become an ageing nation. China’s elderly population is growing significantly. This is as a result of the strict one-child policy, introduced in 1979, in an attempt to control China’s booming population. There are currently 130 million elderly residents, equating to just over 10% of the population. Predictions are that it will have increased to 342 million in 20 years’ time and by 2050 the country’s median age is likely to be 45 up from 30 currently. The infrastructure and social services for the elderly do not meet the demand. Meanwhile, more recently, a growing resentment has surfaced among some of the young, resulting in lawsuits being filed by their elderly relatives who are claiming their legal rights to protection and security in their old age.

This is in direct effect of china’s 1 child policy law that has been a major cause of this major issue in china.

Work Cited

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