The first Indian written language developed in the Indus valley around 2600 B.C. “later Indian scripts, like Brahmi and kharoshi were developed to write both official and local inscriptions, religious texts and administrative documents”. The earliet writing goes by the name of Harappan, but unfortunately we still cannot read it. The early writing was mainly used to mark property in order to prevent others from stealing it and to keep track of things. The writing was in pictograph form, similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics. They were then invaded around 1500 B.C. and nobody wrote for the next 1000 years. Harappan was forgotten. People began writing again around 500 B.C. but they got an idea west Asia to have an alphabetic format. They then actually learned the alphabet from Iranian traders along the silk road. The letters were and are currently called Brahmi.
Two current spoken languages
English and Hindu
Three Historical Scientific Achievments
1. “Zero was discovered in about the second century B.C. from the very beginning Indian mathematics considered zero as a separate numeral…the mathematical implications of zero and infinite were fully realized in the field of astronomy”.
2. “Yoga was developed by Patanjali, a revered sage in ancient India” it was known to be a form of physical medicine to heal diseases.
3. “Ayurveda was developed by Charaka”, he was considered to be the father of medicine. He conciliated his findings in his book Charakasmitha. Ayurveda is a Hindu system of medicine based on the balance of bodily system using yogic breathing, herbal treatment and use of diet.
Social Cast System
The caste system in India divides Hindus into four main categories Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Brahmins are known to be priest and teachers. Kshatriyas are warriors and rulers. Vaishyas are farmers, traders and merchants. Shudras are laborers. Daltis are the out castes and are street sweepers and latrine cleaners
Historical Role of Women
Woman in India where versatile in aristocratic family’s having the ability to hold aristocratic offices and also having a good education but outside that it was common for woman to suffer ignominy, deprivation, and hurdles. They were considered a higher class and were to be given great conditions, but they were held to a higher intellectual and spiritual standard.
Importance of the Family vs. Importance of the Individual
In India, family is the glue of the community and the most important overall. “the Indian family has been a dominant institution in the life of the individual and life of the community. For the Hindu family, extended family and kinship ties are utmost important”.
There are 2 types of social mobility In India. Their names are vertical mobility and horizontal mobility. Vertical refers to the movement of a group or an individual from one social stratum to another, either upward or downward. Meaning some groups may have a higher position in society than others. Horizontal refers to an individual may shift from one social group to another, for example one may shift from agricultural labor to factory labor, same class just different group.
To start off, a monsoon is a geographic event that is caused when the land is colder than the water. This then creates gradient pressure from land to sea. This then causes winds etc. This effects India because this almost changes the season because is covers land with rain showers. This is much needed moisture in which eases tension and relieves farmers. BUT the effects of a late monsoon causes negative alterations to crops such as corn, sugar, and rice. The monsoon normally covers whats called the traditional grain belt in the Gandes River Basin. Due to current technology and irrigational systems, they don’t normally rely on the monsoon, but they definitely aren’t complaining when it does come. This normally occurs around the same time every year.
India's Colonial Past
What country Colonized and Controlled India?
Britain was the greatest dominant power in India (1800). The first major business was the Eastern India company. This was a trading company. Settlements were established in Bombay, Calcutta, and madras to take and exploit India’s cotton.
When did the colonizing country first arrive in India/ When did the colonizing country officially take control of India?
They arrived in the early 1600’s, by 1765 they had almost complete control over india.
How long was India controlled?
They were in control for nearly 200 years. They were ruled because Britain used to make a trading business and set up companies all around.
What was the main reason that India was colonized?
India had a great economy unlike north America. They lacked trade and industries.
When did India gain its independence?
On August 125, 1947 but on June 15, 1947 the British house had an act called the Indian independence act that was passed. India was divided in to two, which were India and Pakistan. This act claimed independence for each domain
Who was a pivotal figure in India's Independence Movement?
Mahatma Ghandi (1869-1948), he led a non-violent, peaceful protest, such as a boycott taken place in the salt march. He created unity in India. He was assassinated in 1948 by a Hindu fanatic.
Current Population of India
Current Rank of the Country's in the World According to their Gross Domestic Product(GDP)
They are ranked number 7 with 2,250.990 billion
Current from of Government
Their government system is Parliamentary. “a parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from the legislature and is also held accountable to that legislature. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is normally a different person from the head of government”
Pranab Mukherjee, he is known to be the Prime Minister
Current place and effects of thee Caste System
The Caste System basically divides the Hindus into 4 major categories. They are the Shundras, Kshatriyas, Brahmins, and the Vaishyas. This causes discrimination and a lowering self-esteem due to other castes looking down on each other. There is little to no communications between the castes. It is still used to determine marriages. People have been doing massive movements and to stop the caste system. But it still plays a huge role in Indian society.
Role of Women is Society Today
In today’s Indian society, Indian women are constantly taking part in movements and social functions to build women up. They are beginning to participate in schooling, attending parties, and even being active participants in political parties
One Widespread challenge that India is facing as a nation today
“High poverty, high populations, and high corruption” It is considered one of the most populated countries and most corrupt countries.
The origin of Buddhism points to one man, Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha, who was born in Lumbini (in present-day Nepal) during the 5th century BCE. Rather than the founder of a new religion, Siddhartha Gautama was the founder and leader of a sect of wanderer ascetics (Sramanas), one of many sects that existed at that time all over India. This sect came to be known as Sangha to distinguish it from other similar communities.
Current number of practitioners
360 million practitioners of Buddhism
The five great Buddha's (Main Beliefs)
1. The white father Vairocana transforms anger
2. The blue father Aksobhya transforms ignorance and stupidity
3. The yellow father Ratnasambhava transforms pride
4. The red father Amitabha transforms passion
5. The green father Amoghasiddhi transforms jealousy
Buddhists believe in reincarnation meaning that they believe that people are reborn again after dying. They believe that people continually go through the cycle of birth, living, death and rebirth.
The three trainings or practices in Buddhism are sila, samadhi and prajna. Sila is the practice of virtue, morality and good conduct. Sila is the classic "golden rule" of Christianity, do unto others as you would wish them to do unto you. Samadhi is the mental development of the person and refers to concentration and meditation. Buddhists believe that developing one's mind is the best way to lead to personal freedom. Prajna is the discernment or enlightenment where wisdom emerges into a person's calm and pure mind.
Inventions is China
Great Inventions of ancient China: the compass, gunpowder, paper making, and printing, were among the most important technological advances, only known in Europe by the end of the Middle Ages
Main Language of China
Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ). and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China. Hanyu, or Han language, spans eight primary dialect groups, that differ from each other morphologically and phonetically to such a degree that dialects from different regions can often be mutually unintelligible. The languages most studied and supported by the state include Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang.
Development of a written language
It is not known when Chinese writing originated, but it apparently began to develop in the early 2nd millennium BC. The earliest known inscriptions, each of which contains between 10 and 60 characters incised on pieces of bone and tortoiseshell that were used for oracular divination, date from the Shang (or Yin) dynasty (18th–12th century BC), but, by then it was already a highly developed system, essentially similar to its present form. By 1400 BC the script included some 2,500 to 3,000 characters, most of which can be read to this day. Written Chinese (Chinese: 中文; pinyin: zhōngwén) comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language. Chinese characters do not constitute an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Rather, the writing system is roughly logosyllabic; that is, a character generally represents one syllable of spoken Chinese and may be a word on its own or a part of a polysyllabic word. The characters themselves are often composed of parts that may represent physical objects, abstract notions,] or pronunciation.
Social Caste System & Confucianism
Born in China in 551 BCE, Confucius lived during a time of political turmoil. Several independent kingdoms divided the area of today’s China. Each fought for dominance. Many people suffered hunger, displacement, and death because of the fighting. Amidst this anarchy, Confucius sought to bring peace and order to society. Although he hoped to accomplish this goal by serving as a high minister in government, Confucius never obtained such a position. Instead, he strived to teach others the way to live in harmony with those around you as well as principles of good governance. His teachings eventually permeated society and he became one of China’s greatest social philosophers and teachers.
Confucius’ teachings focused on the mortal world of rulers and the ruled rather than life after death. In Confucianism, order and peace emanated from the top. Rulers achieved order and harmony in their kingdom when they abided by strict moral codes and sought after virtues. These virtues included humanness, filial piety, ritual, humility, loyalty, and diligence. Confucius also taught that the safety of a society depended on the people maintaining and strengthening five key relationships. These relationships include the following: ruler to subject, father to son, husband to wife, elder to younger, and friend to friend.
Role of Women in China
Few women got jobs outside the home, and when they did, the jobs usually consisted of sewing, weaving and spinning. Some peasant women were forced to work in the fields with their husbands. Either way, it was uncommon to see women of ancient China away from their homes.
Women of ancient China did not have a say on how they married either. All marriages were arranged and considered carefully. Before arranging marriages, the parents of the children would always seek the help of an astrologer. The job of the astrologer was to refer to the birth charts of the children and determine if the two kids would be compatible. In ancient China, compatibility was based on the date and time of birth. Regardless of what the astrologer says, it was always up to the father if the marriage was approved.
When the women met their in-laws, they bowed and served tea. This was a sign that they now belonged to their husband's family. It was common for the women to become the servants of their mother-in-laws.
Although women are longer repressed by the immobilizing foot-binding tradition practiced for generations, they now experience different limitations and social pressures. Whilst communism pushed men and women to work together, China’s traditional Confucianism, which berates “strong women,” lingers. This ideological contradiction results in a society wherein female high-flyers experience difficulty finding partners and women face prejudice in higher education and the workplace. Consequently, financial constraints are common, and many women admit that financial incentives are often more important than personal compatibility when searching for a partner.
The Chinese family structure has traditionally been rigid and hierarchical, with elders still receiving the largest degree of reverence, respect and obedience, a practice that has continued into the modern age. And while Confucius may have preached that showing respect and filial piety to one’s elders did in no way require blind obedience, in actual practice throughout Chinese history and today, many parents and grandparents expect their children/grandchildren to do as they are told. Within the traditional Chinese family structure, each family member has a specific form of address in Chinese, with different forms of address for older and younger brother, sisters, aunts, uncles, grandfathers and grandmothers, on both the maternal and paternal sides of a family.
And while this naturally can appear complicated to the uninitiated Westerner, in fact, it was and is incredibly important to the Chinese family structure. A significant aspect of life in the Chinese family is showing the proper amount of respect to the appropriate members of the family. For example, a father’s elder brother will accordingly rank higher than his younger brother, and there exist separate terms to differentiate the two, to both members of the family as well as to outsiders. And these terms also offer insight into the position of a girl within the traditional Chinese family unit.
Role of the Yellow and Yangtze River
yellow River drainage basin is the birthplace of Chinese nation and meanwhile it is the cradle of Chinese civilization. In this vast cradle, Yellow River civilization, which is the principal part of the whole Chinese civilization and plays a crucial role in the history of civilization development, grew with vitality. It had stood the test of almost all kinds of upheavals and difficulties, and finally created the continuous Chinese civilization.
It provided fertile soil along its river banks and provided great economy in the areas around the rivers.
Today it is china main agricultural areas along the rivers where they replenish soil and plants grown in loose soil prosper.