The Texas Times By: Anjali Velagapudi & Katie Mumpower

Reconstruction Begins!!

As Texas lies heaving in ruins panting and sweaty the North is practically prancing with joy as they prepare for one of the many things we dread that is to come, Reconstruction. This long, tiresome progress where the Union is planning on restoring the South to the Union wether we like it or not! Due to the Civil War the South is left in ruins and what does the North do to help, NOTHING, but send us into a new challenge.

Two Presidential Plans

Lincoln wanted to get the union back together as soon as possible and did not want to punish the South for their actions because he thought it would cause more drama but unfortunately, he was assasinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre. Johnson now wants the South to agree to a lot of things. The South has to ratify the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment and agree that the US does not have to pay their debts from the Civil War.

Slavery Ends In Texas!

On Left : General Gordon Granger, On Right : African Americans celebrating Juneteenth

On June 1865, under the North's bindings General Gordon Granger and his army were sent to take control of Texas. Once General Gordon got to Gaveston he enforced his first act stating that ALL enslaved Texans were free. And as us, Texans gasp in surprise at the General's strict and unreasonable orders, the once enslaved Africans dance with joy as it a new holiday for them, Juneteenth. On this day called Juneteenth the "freedmen" dance around the streets while blaring music from their instruments. And apparently if freeing our one source of money isn't enough, the North is forming a Freedmen's Bureau, which helps freedmen find jobs, and get an education. At the same time the Bureau gives out supplies to the freedmen.

New Texas Governor Appointed

President Johnson has appointed Andrew Hamilton to governor of Texas because he is a Unionist and is a former state governor. The delegates at the Constitutional Convention were mostly people who supported the secession with a few of them being high-ranking officers in the army. The convention, due to the amount of people that supported secession, was biased in our favor.

A New Constitution

Texas Consitution of 1866

To be remitted into the United States Texas was forced to revise our Consitution making it the Texas Constitution of 1866. In our new constitution we had to state we would abolish slavery, nullify secession, and realize that we would have to pay our war debts. Lucky we did have a little bit of choice in what do in our goverment allowing us to elect people that lead us through the war. The state legislature filled with our heros are refusing to ratify two US constitution amendments, the 13th and 14th, which protected the rights of formerly enslaved people and outlawed slavery. The legislature also set up Black Codes that restrict the rights of the "freed people".

Right : Military Districts. Left: Ironclad Oath

Congress Takes Control

The congress feels that Johnson's plan is not working because it brought former confederates into power in the South. Radical Republicans are people who think that the congress should direct reconstruction. The reason the Radical Republicans are still in power is because they care about the "slaves" and protecting them.

Radical Reconstruction Begins!

The U.S. Congress is the harshest plan for Reconstruction of them all. As the Radical Republicans are claiming all Southern governments are illegal. They are even changing all southern states into military districts with an army general in charge of each. We Texans are now part of the Fifth District with General Philip Sheridan in charge. We will continue to be under General Phillips rule until we meet the requirements of ratifying the 14th Amendmen and the 15th Amendment, writing a new consitution that gave African Americans the right to vote and hold office, and repeal ALL black codes. Also, many white southerners are being FORCED to take the Ironclad oath stating they had not voluntarily served in the Confedarate Amry or aided the Confederacy. At the moment, this oath is excluding many White Texans and other White Southerners from voting, serving in juries, and/or holding public office.

Freedmen Get The Vote

This week General Charles Griffin gave freedmen the right to vote. This won't help us with keeping them below us. Over... freedmen got to vote, but he also removed a bunch of us Confedrates from power if we looked like we opposed secession, and replaced us with Republicans. The Ku Klux Klan is a secret organization of white men that are using violence against our former slaves. The KKK oppose scalawags and carpetbaggers because they both are helping the freedmen in some way. Scalawags are white southerners who support reconstruction and carpetbaggers are Northerners who moved to the south, carrying items in suitcases or carpetbags, to share their ideas on how to reconstruct. One incident with the KKK is a mass murder of 200 freedmen at the freedmans bureau. If this keeps on going we may have a chance on getting our own way of life back.

Reconstruction ENDS!

President : Ulysses S. Grant

The time has finally come where Reconstruction is officially over! On March 30th, 1870, president Ulysses S. Grant officially signed a documate stating Texas is now one of the Union states again. But, even though Texas is now again a state it is as if we a being ruled by Governor Davis who has set up State Police Force which is supposed to help maintain law. But, truly this police force is being used to threaten any person who is opposing the governor. On top of that, the police force is made mostly of African Americans and Tejanos! The Governor is also raising tax rates from 15 cents for 100 miles to $2 for 100 miles, so he can pay for all his little roads and schools. This leads to much anger and disagreements among white Texans. One of the two truly goods thing happening during this time of craziness is that most African Americans are chosing to live in rural areas or with their old masters (who are now paying them for their work) so we aren't bothered by them everyday. The second good thing that has occured is that in this year of 1874, Democrats have won the majority of seats at the state legislature and are immediately reducing the government's power and removing the State police force. I believe this small victory of the Democrats winning could be the little ray of sunshine that helps us return to our old lifestyles or as close as we can get without slaves. I also know that with the Democrats in power the "freedman" will never be given the opportunity to be equal to us.

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