Unit two Selena Quevedo

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum and a decrease in wavelength is called blueshift. Got it from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redshift
Background radiation is the ionizing radiation present in the environment. Background radiation originates from a variety of sources, both natural and artificial. Sources include cosmic radiation, naturally occurring radioactive materials such as radon, and fallout from nuclear weapons testing and nuclear accidents. I got it from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Background_radiation
As the universe expanded and cooled down some of the elements seen today were created. The big bang theory predicts how much of each element was created. The difference in most common elements between humans and the universe are not similar.
Galaxy formation is hypothesized to occur, from structure formation theories, as a result of tiny quantum fluctuations in the aftermath of the Big Bang. I got it from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy_formation_and_evolution
The experiments on both models were testing for, if Atoms of different elements have different weights and different chemical properties. How it worked was by two elements can be combined to form a number of possible compounds, then the ratios of the masses of the second element, which combine with a fixed mass of the first element, will be ratios of small whole numbers. It was disprove when suggested no subatomic particles are presented but through the cathode-ray tube experiment, but later found that atoms can be broken down further into further subatomic particles (pure electrons) which contradicted Dalton's theory.
he electron was discovered by J.J. Thomson in 1897. The existence of protons was also known, as was the fact that atoms were neutral in charge. Since the intact atom had no net charge and the electron and proton had opposite charges, the next step after the discovery of subatomic particles was to figure out how these particles were arranged in the atom. This is a difficult task because of the incredibly small size of the atom. Therefore, scientists set out to design a model of what they believed the atom could look like. The goal of each atomic model was to accurately represent all of the experimental evidence about atoms in the simplest way possible. Following the discovery of the electron, J.J. Thomson developed what became known as the “plum pudding” model in 1904. The positive matter was thought to be jelly- like or a thick soup. The electrons were somewhat mobile. As they got closer to the outer portion of the atom, the positive charge in the region was greater than the neighboring negative charges and the electron would be pulled back more toward the center region of the atom.
The Rutherford model is a model of the atom devised by Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford directed the famous Geiger–Marsden experimentin 1909 which suggested, upon Rutherford's 1911 analysis, that J. J. Thomson's plum pudding model of the atom was incorrect. Rutherford's new model[1] for the atom, based on the experimental results, contained the new features of a relatively high central charge concentrated into a very small volume in comparison to the rest of the atom and with this central volume also containing the bulk of theatomic mass of the atom. This region would be known as the "nucleus" of the atom.
The Bohr model is the improvement if the Rutherford model. In 1913 bohr proposed his quantized shell model of the atom to explain how electrons can have stable orbits around the nucleus. The motion of the electrons in the Rutherford was unstable because any charged particle moving on a curved path emits electromagnetic radiation. . To remedy the stability problem, Bohr modified the Rutherford model by requiring that the electrons move in orbits of fixed size and energy. The energy of an electron depends on the size of the orbit and is lower for smaller orbits. Radiation can occur only when the electron jumps from one orbit to another. The atom will be completely stable in the state with the smallest orbit, since there is no orbit of lower energy into which the electron can jump.
The cloud model represents a sort of history of where the electron has probably been and where it is likely to be going. The red dot in the middle represents the nucleus while the red dot around the outside represents an instance of the electron. Imagine, as the electron moves it leaves a trace of where it was. This collection of traces quickly begins to resemble a cloud. The probable locations of the electron predicted by Schrödinger's equation happen to coincide with the locations specified in Bohr's model.

Credits:

Created with images by allispossible.org.uk - "DNA Molecule display, Oxford University" • skeeze - "globular cluster stars messier 92" • alangraham999 - "Microwave" • skeeze - "tarantula nebula central portion doradus" • Hubble Space Telescope / ESA - "Elegant spiral hides a hungry monster" • summonedbyfells - "JOHN DALTON'S ATOMIC TABLES" • bdyczewski - "laboratory chemistry subjects" • starmanseries - "Teaching Chemistry" • Zappy's - "Structure-of-the-Atom-The-Bohr-Model" • Brandon Morse - "cloud"

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