Chemistry Final by alex and luis


Temperature is the energy of a substance. Heat is the transfer of energy from one substance to another. Matter cannot be created or destroyed. Entropy is always increasing. Energy masses from high to low. No motion at absolute O.K. impossible.


  • Some plastics take hundreds of years to break down. They can only be down cycled.
  • Recycling metals takes a lot of energy
  • Up-cycling is when you make more out of what you had before.
  • Down-cycling is when you make less out of what you had before


  • Soil profiles- Soil is a reusable and renewable source. Mature soil has developed over a long time and is arranged in series of horizontal layers. The depth of the O horizon depends on the amount of vegetation. B horizon is the next layer, Roots extend to the E horizon to get water from minerals, The R horizon is the deepest soil horizon.
  • Soil textures- Silt and Clay hold on to water. while sand lets it go through easily

Plant Nutrients

  • Macro Nutrients can be seen with the naked eye
  • Micro Nutrients can only seen with a microscope
Macro Nutrients


  • 97% of water is salt water
  • 87% of water is frozen
  • 95% is ground water
  • surface water is - Lakes, Rivers, and streams
  • Runoff- Rain water
  • watershed- bigger longer riverl

Atoms and Ions

  • John Dalton is the father of atomic theory.
  • All matter consists of invisible particles called atoms
  • Atoms of the same element are identical + different from other elements
  • Atoms cannot be created or destroyed
  • Atoms combine in simple whole number ratios
  • Chemical reactions are atoms re-managing
  • Ions have + or - charge written as a super script
  • Ions compound is a metal and nonmetal combined
Created By
Alejandro Ramirez


Created with images by Unsplash - "power lines telecommunications power" • Couleur - "light bulb pear light" • MatthewGollop - "plastic bottles fishing net netting" • slgckgc - "Got Recycling?" • Merio - "corn crop farm" • Hans - "daisy flower blossom" • mitchell haindfield - "exploring the cattails" • mRio - "Water" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "VISIONS: Seeing the Aurora in a New Light"

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