Napoleon Bonaparte Mrs. Durdle - Modern World History


France had many foreign (and nearby) enemies.

Britain and Russia

Austria and Russia

There was also political INSTABILITY

Different political groups within the French Government (THE DIRECTORY) wanted very different things.

There was a lot of instability and CHAOS in France, and the Government lost support of the French people.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon was born in CORSICA. He was educated at a military school and became an artillery officer. He later joined the army of the new government.

He was called the SAVIOR of the French republic after he led soldiers against French royalistes who were attacking the French convention.

This is a depiction of Napoleon leading troops during the Battle of Arcole, against the Austrians in 1796.

Napoleon had many military victories, leading successful campaigns in ITALY and in EGYPT and returned home in 1799 a hero.


Order & Stability = the EMPEROR

Chaos & Instabilty = the REPUBLIC!

What would you choose?

Napoleon rules france

Surrounded by his troops, Napoleon seized control of the government.

At first, Napoleon set up a new government called THE CONSULATE.

Napoleon, along with two other men, would lead the country.

The Consulate
Napoleon, acting as FIRST CONSUL made many changes that were meant to build on the Revolution's good ideas.

He made TAX collection more fair and orderly -> STEADY supply of money.

He started new PUBLIC SCHOOLS for ordinary citizens.

He wrote a new set of laws - The NAPOLEONIC CODE

This new set of laws gave all French citizens the SAME rights. However, the new laws took away many INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS won during the Revolution.

Then, in December of 1804...

Napoleon crowned himself Emperor

The Expansion of the French Empire

Napoleon Bonaparte's Empire in 1812

Napoleon had tried to expand the French empire in the NEW WORLD. (That didn't work out.)

So, Napoleon took control over the AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS, parts of ITALY, and Switzerland.

He only lost one battle - the Battle of TRAFALGAR against the BRITISH NAVY.

This kept him from conquering Britain.

The fall of Napoleon

Three Big Mistakes

Ordered a BLOCKADE to stop trade between Britain and other European nations. Napoleon called this the CONTINENTAL SYSTEM.

The blockade did not work - instead, it weakened the French economy.

He put his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the SPANISH throne in 1808. The Spanish people (aided by the British) rebelled and fought Napoleon in the PENINSULAR war, which lasted for 5 years. Napoleon lost 300,00 troops.

Napoleon tried to conquer RUSSIA.

The Russians RETREATED! But, they burned their fields and killed thier livestock so that Napoleon's armies couldn't eat anything the left behind.

This was known as the SCORCHED EARTH policy.

Napoleon was now in a position of weakness...

Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Austria joined forced and attacked France.

Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Leipzig in GERMANY, in 1813.

Napoleon was exiled to the island of ELBA.

In March of 1815, Napoleon escaped - and returned to France.


The ALLIANCE of countries that defeated Napoleon before raised up armies to fight him again.

Led by the British Duke of Wellington...

The European powers defeated Napoleon, once and for all...

At the Battle of WATERLOO, in Belgium.

Waterloo! Waterloo! Waterloo! Dismal Plain!
Napoleon was exciled a second & final time.

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