Africa Julia, Gabby, Meghan, Marissa, Laura

Federal System - A system of government in which power is divided between a central authority. Nigeria adopted this type of system after they gained independence.
Martial Law - A temporary rule by military authorities over a civilian population, usually imposed in times of war or civil unrest. This rule was applied during the War of Biafra in Nigeria.
Dissident - An opponent of government's policies or actions. In Nigeria, General Abacha took control and jailed dissidents because he did not agree with the results of an election that was held deciding whether to bring back the civilian rule or not. The election resulted in the victory of the popular leader Moshood Abiola.
Negritude Movement - Originated out of the Paris intellectual environment of 1930's and 1940's. It is a product of black writers joining together through the French language to assert their cultural identity. This movement was formed by French-speaking Africans and West Indians to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values.
Kwame Nkrumah, from West Africa, was a Ghanaian nationalist leader who lead the Gold Coast's independence from Britain. He was the leader of a largely nonviolent movement. The movement was successful.
Jomo Kenyatta - prime minister of Kenya from 1963-1964, later became president from 1964-1978, he led the Kenya African National Union Party, first leader of a unified, independent Kenya, brought stability and economic growth to the former colony.
Ahmed Ben Bella - Leader of the FLN, former prime minister of Algeria, socialist solider and revolutionary who was the first president of Algeria, from 1963-1965 was known as the "Hero of the Soviet Union", focused on trying to better his country and their economy and government.
Mobutu Sese Seko - was the president of the Democratic Republic of Congo, known as Zaire as much of his rule from 1965-1997, he was previously a Civil War army officer, was overthrown in 1997 by rebel forces
Apartheid - South African policy created by the minority government of complete legal separations of the races, including the banning of all social contracts between white and blacks. This policy created segregated schools, hospitals, and neighborhoods.
Nelson Mandela - first black president of South Africa in 1994, and served until 1999, he was known as a very peaceful protester and civil rights activist. Before he became president, Nelson was the leader of the African National Congress, which fought for African American rights. In this position he organized strikes and boycotts to strike against racist policies.
Frederick W. de Klerk - the state president of South Africa from September 1989-May 1994, was also the first deputy to Mandela when Mandela held presidency of South Africa.
Desmond Tutu - a South African social rights activist, first black Archbishop, fought against human rights, racism, poverty, sexism, and more. Later in 1984, Tutu received the Nobel Peace Prize and many other rewards
Angola Civil War - started in November of 1975 and lasted until April 2002, began after Angola was independent from Portugal in 1975

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