We have already got used to the fact that Nature can be mathematically described, although it is not obvious why.
The prophetic power of great theories such as Newton's mechanics or classical electrodynamics is impressive. It is not surprising that in the nineteenth century they harnessed the most powerful minds and little attention was paid to phenomena against which these theories were helpless, as in the case of the phenomenon of changing the color of glowing stones in a dying fire, which shepherds have observed from time immemorial.
Max Planck unveiled a secret. In 1900 he proved that the full description of this phenomenon calls for the introduction of the concept of energy quantum. After almost a quarter of a century of struggle with quantum enigma, mankind received a peculiar gift - a quantum inscription, in the form of a set of rules defining the method of probabilistic prediction the results of future measurements in laboratories. Discovered independently by Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrӧdinger, written in the abstract language of Hilbert's space, it seemed to defy physical reality, while described it to several decimal places.
It broke away from traditional classical concepts such as trajectory, particle, wave. It eliminated the Laplace demon, blurred the division between the observer and the observable world.
It revolutionized the foundations of our civilization, which is symbolized by devices such as a photocell, laser, transistor, atomic clock.
In the area of available technologies, no empirical fact was found contrary to the quantum inscription.
Until the mid-twentieth century, there was a belief that it was completely deciphered. Three publications: Albert Einstein, Borys Podolski and Nathan Rosen (EPR), Ernest Schrӧdinger and John Bell destroyed the cognitive idyll.
It turned out that mathematical formalism of the quantum inscription hides many surprises.
Most intriguingly, he predicts the existence of peculiar correlations between the properties of distant particles called quantum entanglement, which are not dependent on distance, but are stronger, as John Bell proved, than correlations predicted by local deterministic theories.
Subsequent discoveries of quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation, dense coding confirmed physicists that entanglement is an exotic but real resource that allows to perform tasks impossible to perform using classical methods. These spectacular effects have contributed significantly to creation of the fundamental concept - quantum information that underlies the dynamically developing field - quantum information theory.
In this lecture, I will illustrate the extraordinary features of quantum information, which, combined with the development of modern quantum technologies, have opened new horizons in quantum physics that could potentially affect various areas of our live.
They lead to new technologies such as quantum cybersecurity, quantum communication, quantum metrology, and in the long run promising building a quantum computer.
I will also emphasize the participation of domestic centers in the development of this fascinating field.
Professor Ryszard Horodecki PhD, DSc, ordinary member Polish Academy of Sciences is a co-creator of the basics of quantum information theory.
He co-founded the Gdańsk center, which is one of the leading research centers in this avant-garde field.
The main organizer of the National Quantum Information Centre in Gdańsk which brings together seven universities and the CTP of the PAS and the IP of the PAS, its first director (2007-2019). Beneficiary of numerous Polish and EU grants, including ERC Advanced Grant. Laureate, among others Awards of the Foundation for Polish Science, the City of Gdańsk Jan Heweliusz, the Polish Physical Society of Wojciech Rubinowicz (team), Committee of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
A team of scientists led by prof. Horodecki worked out, among others an effective method of detecting quantum entanglement.
The team together discovered a peculiar type of entanglement called bound entanglement, and also made a significant contribution to the field of quantum channel theory and quantum information processing.
Ryszard Horodecki devotes his free time to poetry.
He is the author of the volumes of poetry “Sum ergo cogito” and “The Andromeda Arras” published by the Marpress Publishing House and translated into English.