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美国网络的威胁: 对中共国国有(通信)公司的疏忽 【中英对照翻译】

消息来源:present danger china 《当前危机委员会-中国》

翻译/简评:TCC

前一阵子,美国网络遭受攻击,尤其在关于新冠病毒疫苗研究的机构与组织。这篇(6/10)当委会发的文章明白指出,今日中共能对美国网络造成威胁,主要是最近20年来对中共国国有通信公司监督上的失职。原来所设置的监督小组是一个临时性而非正式编制的小组,这表明完全不注重网路安全,才导致今日国家安全受到威胁。还好亡羊补牢,川普总统在4月发布了一项行政命令,由司法部长领导的一个团队,以严格的审查程序来取代。这新小组的任务是审查那些申请在美国运营的任何外国电信,并审查存在网络安全或国家安全风险的任何现有许可证。希望在司法部与联邦通讯委员会严格的监督下,能确保网络安全。只有美国自身的网络安全得以保障,才可以帮助盟国脱离中共华为5G的阴影。

United States Senate

Threats to U.S. Networks: Oversight of Chinese Government-Owned Carriers

美国参议院

美国网络的威胁: 对中共国国有(通信)公司的疏忽

Senate panel says U.S. telecoms failed for decades to prevent Chinese spying

参议院小组说,美国电信业数十年来未能阻止中共国的间谍活动

Analysis : The Cybersecurity 202: Senate panel says U.S. telecoms failed for decades to prevent Chinese spying

分析:参议院网络安全202小组表示,美国电信业数十年来未能阻止中共国间谍活动

Washington Post | By Joseph Marks with Tonya Riley | June 9, 2020

华盛顿邮报|约瑟夫·马克(Joseph Marks)和托尼亚·莱利2020年6月9日

The federal government failed for nearly two decades to properly guard against the cybersecurity risks posed by Chinese government-owned telecoms operating in the United States, a Senate report released this morning finds.

参议院今天早上发布的一份报告表示,联邦政府在这将近二十年里未能适当地防范在美国营运的中共国国有电信公司所造成的网络安全风险。

That resulted in four of China’s largest such telecom companies being able to operate subsidiaries here with almost no oversight, according to the report from the Senate Homeland Security Committee’s investigations panel.

参议院国土安全委员会调查小组的报告显示,这导致中共国最大的四家此类型电信公司能够几乎不受到监督地在这里运营子公司。

It might also have allowed them to help the Chinese government spy on reams of data from U.S. companies by routing their phone and Internet traffic through China, the report finds.

报告发现,这可能允许他们(这些公司)经由电话和互联网交流输往中共国来帮助其政府监视来自美国公司的大量数据。

The report is the latest in a series of reviews by Congress and elsewhere pointing out shoddy and haphazard U.S., preparation for the cybersecurity threats posed by China’s rise to global power. In a 2019 report, the subcommittee, led by Sens. Rob Portman (R-Ohio) and Thomas R. Carper (D-Del.), slammed U.S. companies including Equifax and Marriott for not protecting themselves against a barrage of Chinese data theft.

该报告是美国国会及其他部门进行的一系列审查中的最新报告,指出美国在对中共国崛起成为全球大国带来的网络安全威胁所做的准备是劣质且无组织性的。在2019年的一份报告中,由参议员罗伯·波特曼(俄亥俄州共和党议员)和托马斯·卡珀(特拉华州民主党议员)领导的小组委员会抨击包括Equifax和万豪在内的美国公司未能自我保护免于受大量中共国数据盗窃者的侵害。

In telecommunications, in particular, U.S. companies largely abandoned building the hardware that will run the next generation of super-fast telecom networks known as 5G. As a result, American officials have been fighting a rear-guard action for the past two years trying to stop China’s Huawei from dominating the global market.

特别是在电信领域,美国公司在很大程度上放弃了构建可运行下一代超高速电信网络(称为5G)硬件的工作。结果,过去两年来,美国官员一直在进行“后卫”行动来试图阻止中共国的华为独占全球市场。

The failure to adequately review Chinese telecoms' national security risk was mainly due to an "informal" and "ad hoc" process.

这未能充分审查中共国电信带来的国家安全风险的主要原因是(采取)“非正式”和“临时性”的作法。

That process was run by just a handful of people at the departments of Justice, Defense and Homeland Security that advised the Federal Communications Commission. The informal panel dubbed “Team Telecom” typically conducted years-long security reviews that FCC commissioners described as an “inextricable black hole.”

这个过程由司法,国防和国土安全部的少数人负责,为联邦通信委员会(FCC)提供建议。非正式小组被称为“ 电信小组”,通常进行长达数年的安全审查,联邦通讯委员会专员将其描述为一个“无法解决的黑洞”。

The panel also rarely followed up once those reviews were complete. For example, the group created security agreements to limit the risk of two Chinese government-owned telecoms’ U.S. operations — China Telecom Americas in 2007 and ComNet in 2009 — but did little to ensure the companies were abiding by them.

当评论完成后,这小组也很少进行跟进。例如,该组织制定了安全协议,以限制两家中共国有电信公司在美国的业务(2007年的美国中国电信美洲公司和2009年的通信网)的风险,但并没有确保两家公司遵守这些协议。

The agreements authorized Team Telecom to conduct inspections of the companies’ U.S. operations, but the group only conducted two such inspections for each company over more than a decade. And none of those inspections occurred before 2017.

该协议授权“ 电信小组”对公司在美国的业务进行检查,但是该组织在过去十多年中仅对每家公司进行了两次此类检查。这些检查都在2017年之后进行的。

Team Telecom never entered into a security agreement with another Chinese firm, China Unicom Americas, and so “ha[d] no oversight authority to assess the company’s operations in the United States,” the report notes.

该报告指出,“ 电信小组”从未与另一家中共国公司中国联通美洲公司(China Unicom Americas)签订安全协议,因此“没有监督机构来评估该公司在美国的业务”。

The group finally did recommend in 2019 that the FCC block another major Chinese telecom, China Mobile, from operating in the United States. But it was only after a seven-year investigation, and it was the first time Team Telecom had made such a recommendation.

该小组最后终于在2019年建议联邦通讯委员会禁止另一家中共国主要电信公司中国移动美洲公司的运营。但这是在七年的调查后,“ 电信小组”首次提出这样的建议。

The panel similarly recommended banning China Telecom Americas last month, citing concerns that its state-owned parent company poses unacceptable risks of Chinese spying.

专家小组在上个月同样建议禁用中国电信,理由是担心其(中共)国有的母公司会构成中共国间谍活动不可接受的风险。

The Senate report comes after the federal government has already started to clean up its act.

参议院的报告是在联邦政府已经开始清理其内部后发布的。

President Trump issued an executive order in April that replaced the informal Team Telecom system with a far more stringent review process led by the attorney general. The new group is tasked with reviewing any foreign telecom requests to operate in the United States and reviewing any existing licenses that pose cybersecurity or national security risks.

川普总统在4月发布了一项行政命令,以由司法部长领导更为严格的审查程序来取代这非正式的“ 电信小组”系统。这新小组的任务是审查申请在美国运营的任何外国电信,并审查存在网络安全或国家安全风险的任何现有许可证。

The FCC also wrote to China Telecom Americas, China Unicom Americas, ComNet and another Chinese firm, Pacific Networks, in April demanding they explain why they shouldn’t be banned over the same Chinese spying concerns as China Mobile.

美国联邦通信委员会(FCC)还在4月致信中共国电信美洲公司,中国联通美洲公司,通信网和另一家中共国公司Pacific Networks,要求他们解释为什么不应该因与中国移动相同的间谍问题为理由而被禁止。

FCC Chairman Ajit Pai said the letter reflects the commission’s “deep concern … about these companies’ vulnerability to the exploitation, influence, and control” of the Chinese government.

美国联邦通信委员会主席拜仁(Ajit Pai)说,这封信反映了该委员会“对这些公司对中国政府的剥削,影响和控制的脆弱性的深切关注。”

“We simply cannot take a risk and hope for the best when it comes to the security of our networks,” he said.

他说:“当涉及到网络安全性时,我们不能冒任何风险,并听天由命。”

The report’s recommendations focus mainly on putting muscle behind the new review process and ensuring reviews move quickly.

该份报告的建议主要侧重于为新的审核流程提供支持,并确保审核迅速进行。

The panel wants Congress to mandate the government review all foreign telecom licenses periodically. It also wants the licenses to automatically expire if they don’t pass muster on national security grounds. Now, the licenses effectively exist forever unless the FCC revokes them.

该小组希望国会授权政府定期审查所有外国电信许可证。它还希望,如果许可证出于国家安全原因未通过要求,则会将其自动过期。现在是,除非联邦通信委员会撤销许可证,否则许可证将永远有效地存在。

Lawmakers also want Congress to set firm deadlines for how long reviews can last, though the report doesn’t offer a specific time frame.

尽管该报告未提供特定时间表,议员们还希望国会为审查的持续时间设定明确的截止日期。

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】