Chapter 29 By: PaUl FerGusoN

Central Nervous System

The Central Nervous System is the system of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. The Central Nervous system is made up of by the brain and spinal cord. The Central Nervous System is responsible for interpreting the outside environment and controls the movement of the body.

Peripheral Nervous System

The Peripheral nervous system is the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. The Peripheral Nervous System is made up consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the Peripheral Nervous System is to the rest of the body to the Central Nervous System. The Peripheral Nervous System serves as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body.

Somatic Nervous System

The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that is associated with skeletal muscle and body movement. The somatic nervous system consists of motor and sensory nerves. The primary function of the somatic nervous system is voluntary muscle movement.

Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system uses sensory neurons to cause reflexes. A reflex is the body’s response to a stimulus. Reflexes can prevent injuries such as a burn from a hot stove. The autonomic nervous system also controls involuntary actions such as digestion. It is made up of two system of nerves, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

The Parasympathetic Nervous System slows body functions during periods of rest to conserve energy. An example of when the Parasympathetic Nervous System is used is in digestion.

Sympathetic Nervous Limits

The Sympathetic Nervous System causes a reflex when you are startled, sending a message that causes your heart rate to increase. This is known as the "flight or fight" response.

Sensory Neuron

A sensory neuron is a nerve cell that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the central nervous system. Sensory neurons


An interneuron is a neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex. Found mostly in the brain.

Motor Neuron

A motor neuron is a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.

Neuromuscular Junction

Neuromuscular junction is a synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. This is where a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle fibers, therefor contracting the muscle.


Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and the body as a neurotransmitter. A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells.

Norepinephrine and epinephrine

Norepinephrine and epinephrine are hormones that are released when the body is under extreme stress.


A synapse is a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of small gap across which impulses pass by a diffusion of a neurotransmitter. There are different types of synapses.

White Matter

White matter is the paler tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve fibers with their myelin sheaths. White matter acts as a relay for communication between differs regions of the brain.

Gray Matter

Gray Matter is the darker tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve cell bodies and branching dendrites. Gray matter includes regions of the brain involved in muscle control, and sensory perception such as seeing and hearing, memory, emotions, speech and a few more actions.

Cerebral Cortex

The Cerebral Cortex is the outer layer of the cerebrum composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness, memory, awareness, and language.

Limbic System

The limbic system is a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions, pleasure, fear , anger, and drives, such as hunger.

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