Temperate Deciduous Forest Canada

Climate of The Forest in Canada

Average Rainfall: 30 to 60 inches a year

Average Temperature: -30°C to 30°C, yearly average is 10°C, hot summers, cold winters

Temperate deciduous forests are located in the mid-latitude areas which means that they are found between the polar regions and the tropics.Temperate deciduous forests are most notable because they go through four seasons. Leaves change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back in the spring; this adaptation allows plants to survive cold winters.

Net Primary Productivity

Latitude/Longitude: The deciduous forest biome extends across the world in temperate zones at approximately the latitudes of 45°N and 45°S. The longitudes range across the globe at approximately 80°W, 70°W, 30°E, 120°E, and 150°E. Temperate deciduous forests are found in middle latitudes (between the polar regions and tropics) with temperate climates.

Diversity: There is great diversity of life in this biome.Insects, spiders, slugs, frogs, turtles and salamanders are common. Temperate deciduous forests have a great variety of plant species. Most have three levels of plants. Lichen, moss, ferns, wildflowers and other small plants can be found on the forest floor. Shrubs fill in the middle level and hardwood trees like maple, oak, birch, magnolia, sweet gum and beech make up the third level.

Soil Quality

As the leaves decompose, the nutrients contained in the leaves are absorbed by the soil. For this reason, the soils of this biome tend to be very fertile. Because this biome has fertile soil and a long, 5 to 6 month, growing season, many deciduous forests have been converted into agricultural regions.

Invasive Speices

Asian gypsy moth: It is a voracious pest of trees that threatens habitants.

Asian Gypsy Moth

Asian Gypsy Moth: The species originally evolved in Europe and Asia and has existed there for thousands of years. In either 1868 or 1869, the gypsy moth was accidentally introduced near Boston, MA by E. Leopold Trouvelot. About 10 years after this introduction, the first outbreaks began in Trouvelot's neighborhood and in 1890 the State and Federal Government began their attempts to eradicate the gypsy moth.

Endangered Species

The Red Fox traditionally, they were top predators who helped balance the forest ecosystem by keeping other animal populations in check but has become endangered because of Habitat Destruction and Population Control.

Animals in the Biome

The American Red Squirrel is able to survive in the temperate deciduous forest because the American red squirrel feeds mainly on seeds, conifer cones and nuts, but will also take a variety of other items including fruits, buds, bark, flowers, fungi, and even insects, birds’ eggs and small vertebrates, such as nestling birds and mice, which are often found in the Canadian forests. The American red squirrel has a widespread but patchy distribution across North America, from Alaska, east across Canada, and south through the Rocky and Appalachian Mountain ranges, to Arizona and New Mexico in the west, and northern Georgia in the East.

The Northern Goshawk it possesses short, robust wings that enable rapid acceleration, and a long tail, which provides excellent maneuverability while flying between trees that make it easy for the to survive in the Canadian temperate deciduous forest. The northern goshawk has an extremely large range, extending throughout much of North America, Europe and northern Asia.

The American Black Bear has great variation in the color of its coat depending o the location. It has been suggested that the variability in coat colouration may be related to habitat, with lighter colored bears occurring in open habitats. It may also serve a purpose in mimicking brown bears that compete and sometimes prey upon this species. While the American black bear principally occurs in coniferous and deciduous forest and woodland, it is highly adaptable and can be found in dry Mexican scrub forest, Louisiana swamps, Alaskan temperate rainforest, and Labrador tundra.

The White Oak tree reaches its maximum development on deep, rich soils of coves and high bottomlands, but grows well on all but the driest and wettest sites in the region. The success of white oak is attributed to its ability to survive for long periods as an understory species, its quick and vigorous response to release from this suppression, and its great longevity.

The Eastern Hemlock tree is one of the most tolerant of all trees and survives under very low light conditions. Eastern white pine is varied in its occurrence with other species and in its ecological role in the region. In the Lake States it often forms extensive pure stands of on drier sites mixes with red pine and jack pine. On heavier soils characteristic of the East, it occurs mainly as scattered individuals amongst a predominantly hardwood forest.

Lichens are also a very popular species in the Canadian Temperate Forest.Lichens are unlike any other organism on earth. Their structure is unique: a symbiosis of two organisms — a fungus and algae. Lichens are not plants, so they do not produce seeds. Lichens can survive in some of the most barren and severe regions of the world. They tolerate extreme cold and dry conditions through dormancy and the ability to recover quickly when conditions are favorable. Although lichens can grow in regions with more rainfall, they actually require little rainfall to survive.

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Created with images by Nicholas_T - "Variegation"

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