Tour of Rome By: Ryan Ibay

Rome is the center of the Roman Empire, built east of the Tiber River and west of the Apennines. The layout of the streets and sewers are credited to the Estruscans.

Rome is on the east banks of the Tiber River and on the west of the Apennines Mountains.

Geography of Rome is characterized by the Seven Hills and The Tiber River. Rome city situated on the eastern banks of river Tiber. Rome is west of the Apennines Mountains. Since Rome was close to the Tyrrhenian Sea, Rome experiences a Mediterranean climate.

Ancient Rome had a Mediterranean climate. Rome had hot and dry summers and mild winters. During the summer, temperatures can often go above 95 F around the middle of the day. The average temperature in the winter is around 55 F.

In ancient Rome, chariot races commonly took place in a circus. The main center of chariot racing was the Circus Maximus in the valley between Palatine Hill and Aventine Hill, which could seat 250,000 people. It was the earliest circus in the city of Rome.

They enjoyed fights between gladiators, and fights between people and animals. These bloodthirsty shows were put on in front of crowds in large arenas called amphitheaters. Roman emperors paid for free shows at theaters and amphitheater.

In the 1st century B.C. the Romans developed the use of concrete. It could be poured into any shape for arches, vaults, or domes. Concrete allows architects to build structures of immense size. The architect used concrete to support terraces and to build what was in effect a skyscraper. To build their open-air theaters, the Greeks had scooped out the sides of hills, using the hills to support the sloping tiers of seats. But the Roman engineers used concrete to support the three gigantic tiers of the Colosseum, their main stadium for public entertainment. The tiers held seats for more than 45,000 spectators.

In the 1st century B.C. the Romans developed the use of concrete. It could be poured into any shape for arches, vaults, or domes. Concrete allows architects to build structures of immense size. The architect used concrete to support terraces and to build what was in effect a skyscraper. To build their open-air theaters, the Greeks had scooped out the sides of hills, using the hills to support the sloping tiers of seats. But the Roman engineers used concrete to support the three gigantic tiers of the Colosseum, their main stadium for public entertainment. The tiers held seats for more than 45,000 spectators.

Painting was usually done as a form of decoration. These murals were usually used to make the room seem larger, by making an illusion of depth, or creating a pastoral landscape where there was no window or view. In Pompeii, for example, paintings were executed on the inside walls of the houses in fresco.

Romans loved all forms of entertainment. Sports contests, chariot races, gladiators and live theater were all very popular. Plays were performed during religious ceremonies, to honor the gods. Since Rome had over 200 religious days every year, it was possible to see a play on almost any day. Since the actors were professional and did receive pay, someone had to pay to sponsor the play. As a way to honor the gods, some wealthy noble would pay for the play and then allow people to come and watch the play for free.

Although the first people who came to the Mediterranean were probably following along the coast, and ate mainly fish, shellfish, seaweed, and wild figs, by the time the Roman Republic got started, there were far too many people in the Mediterranean to be able to live entirely from the ocean, and although people kept on eating a lot of fish and seafood, most people had to also eat farmed foods. Poor people ate more millet, and rich people ate more wheat. Starting around 100 AD, poor people started to eat oats, too. If you were rich, you could also eat beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and fish, dormice, and snails. If you were poor, you ate mostly just the Mediterranean Triad, with vegetables like lentils and cucumbers, onions, garlic, and lettuce, fruit like apples and figs, nuts, and sometimes cheese and eggs.

The patricians were the ruling class of the early Roman Empire. Only certain families were part of the patrician class and you had to be born a patrician. The patricians were only a small percentage of the Roman population, but they held all the power. The other citizens of Rome were Plebeians. Plebeians were the farmers, craftsmen, laborers, and soldiers of Rome. The Plebeians had little to no power, so many went on strike and created the Council of the Plebs.

Family was an important part of Ancient Roman culture. Most of Roman law was written around protecting the basic structure of family. The family you belonged to had a lot to do with your place in Roman society and whether you were considered a patrician or a plebeian.

The Romans believed in lots of gods. There were gods for just about everything. The Romans even took on many of the gods of the people they conquered. They especially liked the Greek gods. Many Romans had a shrine in their house to worship their personal household god, or they would go to a temple to worship gods.

Latin and Greek were the dominant languages of the Roman Empire, but other languages were important regionally. The language of the ancient Romans was Latin, which served as the "language of power".

Credits:

Created with images by Unsplash - "colosseum rome italy" • patrizio1948 - "rome italy travel" • xxolgaxx - "chariot statue monument" • Tama66 - "cathedral facade italy" • Jorge Lascar - "Church of Saint Olha and Elizabeth" • Arcaion - "ex officio administration coercion"

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