Malaria parasites Created by Samir Hendawi

How do malaria parasites and its hosts reproduce? Describe in detail.

Malaria parasites reproduce asexually, with one parent duplicating itself. They do this in the erythrocytes. However, some Malaria parasites differentiate, and reproduce sexually in the red blood cell. These types of parasites reproduce in humans and the infection comes from Anopheles mosquitos. In humans, the parasites first expand in the liver as well as duplicating themselves there, then in the red blood cells. In the blood, the offspring of parasites expand inside the red cells and destroy the red cells, which then releases the daughter parasites that continue the cycle by destroying other red cells.

This is how Malaria parasites look like
What are the traits that are changed or influenced by the parasite in each species?

The traits that are changed or influenced by the parasite are red blood cells. These specific types of cells get infected so that the disease can change the function of red blood cells. It makes copies of the identical blood cell that had been infected. For this reason this disease will continuously spread. As well as that, this disease will infect a type of protein that stand by the name of hemoglobin.

Using a Punnett Square, label these traits and show how you can predict future generations. What are the probabilities of each trait in future generations?
A punnet square predicting the probability of an infection in red blood cells

The punnet square above proves that infections are easily able to be passed on to future generations. You could predict that 75 percent of red blood cells in your body have been infected and that the other 25 percent have luckily not been infected. The red blood cell can get stopped by the immune system, however this event does not always occur. I found this out since the I knew the red blood cell could get infected. As well as that, unfortunately there is no cure found yet for Malaria, this is because of genetic reasons or body symptoms. This trait will be passed on from generation to generation, however not as much malaria will be passed on to the offspring

Using gene therapy or any other research can you suggest a cure for the infection?

The severity of the disease and the probability of chloroquine resistance determines the types of medications used to cure malaria. They are treated by:

Chloroquine

Quinine

Hydroxychloroquine

Artemether and lumefantrine

Atovaquone

Proguanil

Mefloquine

Clindamycin

Doxycycline

However there is no 'cure' for malaria. You can only take medications to help fight Malaria.

The individuals with the most sever symptoms suffer with falciparum malaria. This disease may cause breathing failure, coma and kidney failure, so therefore they will need to be monitored in the intensive care unit of a hospital during the first days of treatment

Chloroquine is the preferred treatment for pregnant woman. Quinine, proguanil and clindamycin usually are used for pregnant people with malaria that is resistant to chloroquine.

How an Anopheles mosquito looks like infecting a human

Credits:

Created with images by Freeimages9 - "mosquitoe mosquito malaria"

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