Four Principals of Physical Development
Children are dynamic individuals– meaning they vary in their abilities and skills based on their biology and environment. Growth should happen but the rate at which it happens can vary greatly. All children go through the same progression but the rate at which it happens varies from child to child.
Children specialize and differentiate based on their exposure and interests. The brain over produced neurons to provide the potential to acquire abilities. Eventually the unused neurons are trimmed away to allow the active brain cells to become more effective and efficient.
Children learn basic skills and abilities and then those are integrated with other abilities to form higher order abilities.The ability to use a combination of basic skills and brain cells that can work with other brain cells effectively is rather sophisticated.
Example: Walking starts with the ability to move your legs, then have balance, use that balance to stand upright, then have the ability to put one foot right in front of the other while moving the body forward.
When children first develop a new skill it is a bit of a struggle for them at first but over time thought experience and practice the quality of that said skill becomes more familiar and automatic. As it become refined the quality of said skill increases and almost become automatic and second nature to them.
Myth and Fact
Myth - Communications and Language Are the Same
Fact - Communication involves a sender who encodes a message and a receiver who decodes a message. Language is a system of arbitrary verbal symbols that speakers put in order according to a conventional code to communicate ideas and feelings or to influence the behavior of others. The ability to communicate language indicates using a complex and arbitrary system that expresses both concrete and abstract ideas.
Myth - Spoken Languages are Verbal and Signed Languages are Non-Verbal
Fact - Both languages are verbal and non-verbal but Sign Language is a manual language where as a spoken language is a non-manual language.
Myth - People Who Sign do the Hand Thing
Fact - Gesture and Sign Language are not the same thing. Both are manual but gesture is basic and limited on what it can communicate. ASL, a language, is able to express abstract ideas.
Myth - Spoken and Signed Languages are Processed in the Brain Differently
Fact - Both use Wernicke's region to receive language and use Broca's region to produce language. Studies show that ASL and gestures are processed in completely different areas of the brain.
Myth - English is More Sophisticated Than ASL
Fact - There is a vast difference in the complexity of both languages. Both are equally complex in their own right.
Language Acquisition Theories
Nativism - Works on the theory that the ability to use and have language is an innate of of human development. This theory also implies that it is possible to develop language with sufficient exposure to language in social contexts.
Functionalism - Language is essential for all humans that they will create a language if they do not have one. The desire to communicate is a direct result of heredity and their environment. There are practical benefits to the development of language.
Chomsky's Cognitive Grammar Theory - Another form of the Nativist theory believes that language is build because all all people have a Language Acquisition Device. The ability to have language is pre-wired and children seem to have universal grammar. All children reach language milestones about the same time does not matter the language used.
Cognitive Theory - For right handed people the left hemisphere of the brain dominates language. Language is produces in Broca's region while language comprehension happens in Wernicke's region of the brain.
Sensitive Period of Language Aquisition
Children's brain structures are ready to acquire language during certain periods of growth. Sensitive periods are when the brain enables efficient and effective growth and promotes robust development. Since hearing are born into an environment where they have access to language they master rules of their language by age 6 whereas many deaf children do not have the opportunity to fully master language by age 6 since they do not have the access to that same language rich environment.
Delayed exposure to language impacts the cognitive development of children. Children who don't have access to language also miss out on motherese, phonological analysis, and crucial language.
Fluid and Crystalized Intelligence
Fluid Intelligence is a way that we are able to process information and make connection and identify patterns that exist in the world. Basically memory and recall. Crystallized Intelligence is knowledge that you acquire over time. It is a combination of experiences, interactions, learning, and book knowledge.
Exposes children to language through daily interaction. Based one the belief that children will absorb rules of language through exposure and can apply knowledge of context to learning rules and promote pragmatic understanding of language.
- Language involves interaction among the components of content, form, and use.
- Information about normal language development is the basis for determining language goals and intervention strategies.
- Language is learned through communication.
- Communicative competence is the ultimate goal of language development.
Emphasizes knowledge of structure in the rules of grammar by treating language analytically. Belief that children acquire rules of grammar through systematic instruction. Children will apply those rules in their use of language daily.
- Language modeling must occur in language class and as an integral part of content areas and social interactions.
- Children must be given the opportunity to receive frequent examples of sentence patterns or targeted language forms.
- Structured stimuli must be provided to give children a chance to perceive language patterns and eventually produce them.
- Children must be given opportunity to apply language patterns to novel and naturally occurring language environments.
Apple Tree Curriculum
Focuses on 10 basic sentence patterns to develop language writing base. Taught in single elements that are presented in steps that are small and sequential. Also reinforces the previous lesson that was taught.
- Comprehension - exposes children to works and syntactic structures to ensure basic level of understanding.
- Manipulation - Students need to correctly select what word foes into the correct place for each syntactic structure.
- Substitution - students are provided with a sentence and musty add their own vocabulary term that is appropriate for the space.
- Production - Students are provided a few words or phrases and must write a sentence based on it.
- Transformation - students transform a basic pattern.
Rhode Island Curriculum
Focused on three components in the system.
- Framework for the language program: exposure, recognition, comprehension, and production.
- Division into three levels: preschool/kindergarten, simple sentence level, and language complex level.
- Division into academic subject areas: math, science, social studies, and the arts.
Exposure - storybooks, experience charts, interactive games. Recognition - how old are you? What was he doing? When did he go? Comprehension - reading a sentence or passage. Production - able to write a response to a story with correct mechanics, flow, and meaning.