Nursing News Spring 2020 • Department of nursing Newsletter

Greetings from the Assistant Dean of Nursing

By Dr. Kim Fenstermacher, Assistant Dean of Nursing

As this newsletter goes to press, the days are getting longer, birds are returning from their winter retreats, and daffodils are blooming. Spring is in the air and it will not be long until the campus landscape is bursting with the beauty of God’s handiwork. Although I love the crisp air and the excitement of “back to school” in the fall, there is nothing like the anticipation that the season of spring brings. Spring signals celebration, and this year, we have much to celebrate!

As we returned to campus to start the academic year, we celebrated the first-time NCLEX pass rate of 100% by the class of 2019. In January, we welcomed our latest simulator to our labs. Thank you to the Wells Foundation for their generous donation to make it possible for us to purchase a new state of the art pediatric simulator. In addition to “breathing”, this new pediatric simulator named “Hal” actually blinks, changes facial expressions, and turns his head toward the sound of the nursing student’s voice. Pretty impressive!

We are celebrating a successful CCNE site visit for the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Program! In early March, we hosted a team of three peer evaluators from the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) for the initial accreditation visit for the DNP program that started in 2016. During the visit, the team interviewed faculty, students, members of the advisory council, support staff, and administrators. The team will submit their report to the Accreditation Review Committee and then from there it will go to the CCNE Board of Commissioners, with a final response to us by October. The accreditation decision will be effective retroactive to the first day of our on-site review (March 2, 2020). In April 2021, all of our nursing programs at the undergraduate and graduate level will undergo re-accreditation by CCNE.

As we look ahead to Fall 2020, we are delighted to welcome our newest faculty member, Kristi Barbato, DNP, FNP. Dr. Barbato is a family nurse practitioner with expertise in pediatrics and women’s health. She will teach in the undergraduate and graduate programs, joining Nancy Frank in the junior level women’s health course and Dr. Tara Jankouskas in the children’s health course. Dr. Barbato will also teach the women’s health and pediatric content in the FNP program. Also in Fall 2020, the Adult Degree Program (ADP) at Messiah College will offer an RN to BSN degree completion program that will be part of the Department of Nursing. The program will be offered entirely online. We are excited to bring the Messiah nursing distinctives to this new program.

In August, we will celebrate as the first cohort of Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) students make history when they become the inaugural graduates under the new name of “Messiah University” and complete the first doctoral program offered by the School of Graduate Studies. The DNP students will join the master students to walk for May graduation where they will be hooded with their doctoral hood in the apricot color that represents nursing. Indeed, we have much to celebrate!

This year, we are joining nurses around the world in celebration of our beloved profession of nursing. The World Health Organization has designated 2020 as the “Year of the Nurse and Nurse Midwife” in honor of Florence Nightingale’s 200th birthday. We remember Florence Nightingale’s many contributions to nursing, such as her statistical charts to display outcome data and her theories about the environment. Nightingale was a fierce patient advocate. She is remembered as the “Lady with the Lamp” for her unwavering vigilance and commitment to patients. Nightingale is credited with reforming public health policies and championing nursing as a profession. In addition to her clinical work, she was a prolific writer. In 1859, she wrote “Notes on Nursing,” which is still heralded as a brilliant and insightful composition that detailed the nurse’s role in promoting, restoring, and maintaining the health of patients. In 1860, Nightingale established the first school of nursing, thereby formalizing the education and training of nurses. One of my favorite qualities about Florence Nightingale is that she viewed nursing as a calling, a vocation.

At Messiah College, we also embrace nursing as a vocation. We believe that nursing is a calling from God to serve Him by caring for others. We are dedicated to teach nursing from a Christian worldview. We are committed to preparing nurses to succeed in the challenging healthcare system.

And, undeniably, the challenges facing our healthcare system are daunting. As we reflect on Nightingale’s legacy and look to the future, we realize that now, more than ever before, our work as nurse educators is critical. Healthcare workforce experts predict that by 2030 the United States will experience a nursing shortage of over 500,000 nurses. As the “baby boomer” generation nurses retire, they not only leave the workforce, but their years of experience and expertise go with them. Along with the nursing workforce shortage, we are in the midst of a nursing faculty shortage. Thus, it is imperative that we prepare our graduates at the highest level of competence to be ready for practice. We need to encourage our graduates to consider masters and doctoral education and to consider future careers in nursing education. Our Messiah nursing programs span baccalaureate, masters, and doctoral preparation across the roles of registered nurse, nurse educator, nurse administrator, and family nurse practitioner. It is our hope that our alumni will return to Messiah when they are ready to pursue an advanced nursing degree.

As I write this editorial, the world is gripped in fear about the Coronavirus outbreak. Concern is mounting daily about the spread of the virus. Plans for travel are impacted. Worry is creeping in and uncertainty about the future is threatening the peace of many. As Christians, we are reminded in the scriptures to put our trust in God for He holds the future in His hands.

“Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which passes all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.” - Phil. 4:6-7 ESV

May I encourage you to replace worry with prayer and praise? David reminds us in Psalm 18:3 “I will call upon the Lord, who is worthy to be praised” and again in Psalm 18:30 “This God, His way is perfect; the promise of the Lord proves true; He is a shield for all who take refuge in Him.”

Join me in celebrating God for His faithfulness in the rhythms of the seasons. Let us celebrate Him for the beauty of spring. Let us praise Him for His goodness and blessing on the students, faculty, and staff in the Department of Nursing at Messiah College. In closing, let us remember the most glorious of reasons to celebrate: Our risen Savior!

Blessings, Kim Fenstermacher, PhD, CRNP


  • Dr. Kristen Slabaugh obtained certification as a nurse educator (CNE) in July 2018.
  • Dr. Sarah Jones obtained Certified Nurse Educator (CNE) status August 2019.
  • Dr. Kim Fenstermacher published Fenstermacher, K. (2019). Health Care in the United States. In Black, B. Professional nursing (9th ed.) (pp. 311-340). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier and Fenstermacher, K. (2019). Political Activism in Nursing: Communities, Organizations, Government. In Black, B. Professional nursing (9th ed.) (pp. 341-360). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier
  • Dr. Megan Gross contributed to Shellenbarger, T. (Ed.). (2019). Academic clinical nurse educator review book: The official NLN guide to the CNE®cl exam. Washington, DC: National League for Nursing.
  • Dr. Megan Gross was a podium co-presenter of “The PhD Journey: Tips for Success From Faculty and Graduates” at the 45th Sigma biennial conference.
  • Dr. Megan Gross presented her doctoral research, “The Impact of Text Messages on Anxiety and Health-Promoting Behaviors Among Baccalaureate Nursing Students: A Mixed-Methods Approach” as a podium presentation at the Eastern Nursing Research Conference and as a poster as the PinnacleHealth 28th Annual Nursing Research Conference.
  • Jeff Stroup promoted to Associate Professor of Nursing, Clinical Track, effective Fall 2020.
  • Dr. Kristen Slabaugh was awarded mentorship through the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) Faculty Leadership Mentoring Program.
  • Dr. Wanda Thuma-McDermond serves as faculty counselor for Lambda Kappa chapter of Sigma Nursing Honor Society.
  • Nancy Frank serves as secretary for Lambda Kappa chapter of Sigma Nursing Honor Society.
  • Dr. Megan Gross serves as treasurer for Lambda Kappa chapter of Sigma Nursing Honor Society and was the chapter’s delegate to the biennial conference.

Photo: Drs. Kim Fenstermacher and Megan Gross celebrate their recent publications.

Adjunct Nursing Faculty

Graduate 2019 - 2020

  • Kristi Barbato, DNP, CRNP — NURS 705, NURS 706, NURS 707, NURS 708
  • Stacey Carroll, Ph.D., APN-BC — NURS 722, NURS 723, NURS 724
  • Jeff Davis, MBA — NURS 640
  • Colleen Fantaski, Ph.D., CRNP — NURS 709, NURS 710
  • Rebecca Harris, Ph.D. — NURS 503, NURS 630
  • Marsena Howard, DNP, CRNP, CNM — NURS 622, NURS 704, NURS 710
  • Jeffrey Kreitman, PharmD — NURS 504
  • Holly Langmuir, MD, MPH, MS — NURS 621, NURS 624, NURS 721, NURS 722
  • Jenny Monn, DNP, FNP-BC — NURS 602
  • Aislynn Moyer, DNP, RN — NURS 631
  • Danielle Oakes, DNP, CRNP, FNP-BC — NURS 505, NURS 724
  • Lauren O’Hanlan, DNP, PNP — NURS 706
  • Felicia Rohrbaugh, DNP, RN, CNM — NURS 710
  • Bethany Scott, DNP, APRN, FNP-C — NURS 505
  • Nancy Woods, Ph.D., MPH, RN — NURS 501

Undergraduate 2019 - 2020

  • Maureen Asper, MS, RN, ACNS-BC — NURS 412C
  • Kelly Boesch, MSN, CRNP — NURS 313C
  • Lauren Bredin, MSN, RN, CCRN — NURS 411C
  • Sarah Crown, BSN, RN—NURS 410C
  • Sarah Curtis, MSN, CRNP—NURS 211C
  • Emily Griffith, MSN, RN — NURS 210C, NURS 211C, NURS 310C
  • Hannah Hess, MSN, RNC-MNN — NURS 203, NURS 211C, NURS 310C
  • Jennifer Hughes, MSN, RN — NURS 313
  • Janelle Humbert, MSN, RN, CEN — NURS 211C
  • Joanne Konick-McMahan, MSN, RN, PCCN — NURS 413C
  • Pam Linstedt, MSN, RN, CNE — NURS 203, NURS 210C, NURS 211C
  • Sarah Mauldin, MSN, RN — NURS 410C, NURS 413C
  • Mary Lou Mortimer, DNP, MSN, RN — NURS 405
  • Leah Pardoe, MSN, RN — NURS 413C, NURS 495
  • Jenny Rex, MSN, RN — NURS 313C
  • Susan Richwine, MSN, RN, NE-BC, CCRN-K — NURS 312C
  • Abby Schmuck, MSN, RN, CCRN — NURS 211C, NURS 411C
  • Betsy Seigendall, BSN, RN — NURS 210C
  • Serena Shirey, MSN, RN — NURS 312C, NURS 411C
  • Talisha Sneeringer, MSN, RN — NURS 311C, NURS 412C
  • Valerie Steinweg, BSN, RN — NURS 210C
  • Alicia Urich, MSN, RN, CMSRN — NURS 413C
  • Teri Witter, MSN, RN — NURS 211C, NURS 311C
  • Emily Zimmerman, BSN, RN — NURS 410C


Student Nurses' Association

By Brittany Larson ’20, Secretary

The Student Nurses’ Association (SNA) is a pre-professional club which seeks to encourage and equip nursing students of all years to thrive in the nursing major and in future careers. Here is an overview of the events we have had this school year!

We kicked off the fall semester with our annual SNA/NCF welcome picnic down by the Yellow Breeches. It was a great opportunity for freshman to connect with upperclassmen, and for all of us to have some fun with our professors (like teaching Dr. Wanda Thuma-McDermond how to floss!). For the fall semester, our bimonthly meetings were focused on educating underclassmen about opportunities they will encounter in the next few years, such as study abroad programs and externships. In November, we held our annual bone marrow drive through DKMS. In just one day, we were able to get over 100 Messiah students and faculty on the bone marrow registry! Finally, at the end of the semester, students were invited to attend the Student Nurses’ Association of Pennsylvania (SNAP) Convention in Lancaster City. We attended a job fair with hospitals all across the state, and went to an eye-opening seminar on the opioid crisis. We were also ecstatic to support our very own Dr. Fenstermacher as she introduced the keynote speaker of the convention!

For the spring semester meetings, exciting speakers are coming to talk about unique career opportunities in the nursing field. Coming up soon are hospice nurses and prison nurses! In addition, we have been fundraising all year for our long awaited trip to the National Student Nurses’ Association (NSNA) Convention. Last year, the convention was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, and this year, it is in Orlando, Florida! The annual convention helps Messiah students to connect with hospitals all around the country and attend seminars on ‘hot button’ topics in nursing. We also will not mind destressing at Disney during our free time! There are around 11 juniors and seniors attending the convention. Needless to say, we are counting down the days to April.

Underlying SNA’s meetings, events, and conventions is the mission to get nursing students excited and informed about the calling we are pursuing. Ultimately, nursing is a career that provides so many different ways to serve others and serve God.

I think I speak on behalf of all Messiah nursing students when I say that we feel so blessed to be pursuing this degree in a Christ-centered environment, and are so excited to see where God leads us in this career path.

Photo: Messiah’s SNA leaders enjoy the SNAP convention

Nurses' Christian Fellowship

By Jackie Comly ’20, President

NCF seeks to equip, empower, and encourage nursing students to pursue Christ in this season of our life and in our career as nurses. We seek to create an environment where community is found, where faith is taken to new levels, and where we can process our lives as nursing students. We meet each Wednesday in Kline and begin by sharing the highs and lows of our week. We then dive into scripture, discuss the material for the week, and pray for the needs in our lives and in the lives of those in our community. This year, we used RightNow Media as a resource for our devotionals. During the fall semester, we learned from Jenny Allen on the book of 1st Corinthians. We were challenged to seek the truth of God in a messy world and to seek His Kingdom first, no matter how busy our schedules get. In the spring semester, we listened to J.D. Greear and his teachings on Judges and were reminded of how rebellious human nature is, yet how good our God is. God was in a constant, loving pursuit of the people of Israel, just as he is in a constant, loving pursuit of us.

We began our year with the NCF and SNA kick off picnic, where all the classes gathered for sandwiches, dancing, and lots of laughter. We held another first year mixer with SNA in order to provide a space for first years to feel more welcome. We enjoyed pizza and conversation from all classes with the first years about their adjustments to college and dreams in nursing. We held our annual Christmas party at our advisor’s, Wanda Thuma-McDermond, house, with special guest Pam Linstedt. She brought her famous casseroles, adding even more joy to this Christmas party. We had a white elephant gift exchange, held an ugly sweater contest, and reminisced of Christmas memories. This semester, we provided Valentine’s Day candy for first years to remind them how loved they are. We are planning to hold a Disney movie night where we dress up in pajamas and gather for snacks and a good movie! We will hold another destress fest and an end of the year party. We are so excited to continue to nurture the community that is Messiah College nursing students and are anticipating God to move in big ways through us.

Students enjoy the annual NCF Christmas party.

Leading Supplemental Instruction

By Jordan Diethrich ‘21

“Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.” – Ancient Chinese Proverb.

As a supplemental instruction (SI) leader here at Messiah College, my role is to plan and facilitate learning sessions where students learn lecture material in a new way. I get to lead one of my all-time favorite classes, Anatomy and Physiology. I help students learn as much as possible by teaching study skills and facilitating learning activities, all in a non-graded, relaxed atmosphere. Some of our learning activities have included endocrine telephone, acting out air/bone/fluid sound conduction in the ear, Bunco exam review, and mock exams.

Meeting consistently and without the pressure of graded assignments, students stay on track with their studying habits and are exposed to high-level application questions, making exams less intimidating. As a student, I went to SI for Anatomy and Physiology my first year and I attended Maternal Nursing SI this past fall (lead by Jackie Conley ’20). These sessions equipped me with study skills and provided a learning environment that helped me do well in these challenging courses.

Even though SI is created to benefit the students in the class, it also benefits the leader. Through leading SI, I have grown in my group leadership skills, my study habits, and my knowledge of Anatomy and Physiology (which has helped me in subsequent nursing courses). This is my fourth semester as an SI leader. Helping fellow students work through challenging content, learning difficult material over and over, and building relationships with others has been my privilege and pleasure and I plan to continue work as an SI leader until I graduate.

Photo: Jordan illustrating the Sodium-Potassium Pump during an SI session.

My Experience as a Pediatric Emergency Department Nurse Extern

By Brittany Shields ‘20

When I found out that I received an externship in the Pediatric Emergency Department at Hershey Medical Center I was jumping for joy. After my interview with the nurse manager I did not think I would get the position. She told me they were only picking one extern for the Peds ED and she still had many interviews to go through. Little did I know I would get so much more out of the externship than I had ever thought.

I always knew that I wanted to be a Pediatric Nurse, but honestly never knew how to talk to children. After this externship, I now am comfortable talking, even to a newborn who has no idea what I am saying. Throughout my externship I observed traumas, participated in mock codes run by the head doctor, and assisted my nurse preceptor with nursing skills and care of children. I also had two shadowing opportunities in the Pediatric Intermediate Care Unit and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. I became so confident that I could anticipate what my nurse preceptor had to do and could prepare all the necessary items before she would even ask, which she found extremely helpful. I think what meant the most to me throughout my externship was the relationships that I built. I became great friends with many of the nurses and ED Technicians, in which I hang out with to this day. Lastly, I can honestly say that the team of Physicians, Nurse Practitioners, Physician’s Assistants, Nurses, Managers, Clinical Leaders, Emergency Technicians, and Child Life Specialists are just so amazing, which is something that can be hard to find.

When applying for a Graduate Nurse position, I put my top choice position as the Peds ED. I decided to put trust into God’s hands and told Him whatever he wanted me to do it would all work out.

I then received a phone call from Human Resources telling me that I could accept a position with the Peds ED or I could interview with other units that were interested in me. I can happily say that I am proud to be starting as a Graduate Nurse this summer in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

Brittany with her nurse preceptor, Jocelyn, and ED Tech, Sarah.

Sigma Nursing Honor Society Induction

On November 9, 2019, the Lambda Kappa chapter of Sigma Nursing Honor Society inducted 14 undergraduate and two graduate students into membership. The evening began with a welcome by Juliana Frederick, chapter Vice President. The keynote speaker, Dr. Louann Zinsmeister, presented, “The Maze of Career Paths in Nursing.” She encouraged each student to consider their future as they prepared to graduate from Messiah College. Her thorough overview of the options included possibilities in patient care, education, research, and leadership. Dr. Zinsmeister explained differences and associated responsibilities with various educational degrees, including Master of Science in Nursing (MSN), Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP), and Ph.D. Additionally, she discussed advanced practice and other nursing pathways, such as nurse anesthetist, nurse midwife, nurse practitioner, and clinical nurse leader. Following the keynote address, Juliana Frederick explained the induction ritual and introduced each inductee. The inductees received a certificate, were pinned, donned an honor cord, and signed the chapter book. Afterwards, the inductees celebrated with their families, friends, and faculty over a catered dinner.

Front L-R: Lydia Rudy, Emily Mellott, Amelia Budd, Zoe Kamin; Middle L-R: Sarah Swarr, Brittany Larsen, Tasha Martin, Abigail Lapp; Back L-R: Jenna Trumbore, Shannon Taylor, Jacalyn Comly, Megan Heiges, Corinne Musser. Not pictured: Maddison Landis; DNP students: Lacey Ehrenfeuchter, Tracy Young

Meet Hal

By Dr. Mel Seitz, Simulation Educator

In December 2019, the Department of Nursing added a new member to its simulation team. His name is Hal. Hal is a brown hair, blue-eyed boy who weighs 35 pounds and is 45 inches tall. He hangs out in Kline 004 and rarely leaves his room. He is an advanced pediatric patient simulator. Gaumard, the company that manufactures him, describes him as the world’s most advanced pediatric patient simulator.

Unlike the other simulators that are part of our simulation team, Hal is able to display lifelike emotions through his facial expressions, movement, and speech. Just like a young child, he can display a variety of emotional states including anger, pain, anxiety, crying (he cries real tears), yawning, worry, and amazement. He can also track you. That means he will turn his head and eyes to look at you when you walk up to his bedside! His pupils react to light. He can have mild and severe seizures. He has heart, lung, and bowel sounds. He can be intubated and respiratory support can be provided using a mechanical ventilator. Assessing his blood sugar can be done by obtaining a drop of blood from his finger. He has pulses that can be felt throughout his body. His heart rhythms and oxygen levels can be monitored. If he experiences cardiac arrest, he can be resuscitated using basic and advanced cardiac life support. He can provide real-time feedback about the quality of the CPR being provided including the depth and rate of compressions. That information can be provided to students to help them master key CPR skills.

Thanks to a grant, generously provided by the Wells Foundation, purchasing Hal went from being a dream to reality. Students interact with Hal while learning to care for pediatric and critically ill patients. Comments from some students who have interacted with Hal so far include:

“I think the simulator is awesome because of how much we can do with it.”

“The simulator is more realistic looking than others which has helped me to take on the nursing role while practicing. It is also helpful that he can talk and have changing vitals like a real patient.”

“I like how he can say ‘I feel better’ or ‘It hurts all over’ in response to interventions.”

“I think it is really helpful practicing on a kid-sized patient before going to clinical. The simulator is also pretty life-like which makes it more realistic.”

If you have not met Hal yet and would like to do so, contact Mel Seitz at mseitz@messiah.edu or extension 6620 to meet him.

Junior nursing students work on case studies in small groups.

CONGRATULATIONS to the class of 2019 on their 100% first time pass rate on the NCLEX-RN®!

Senior nursing students prepare for simulations.


Balancing Nursing and Wrestling

By Josiah Gehr ‘22

Hi, my name is Josiah Gehr. I am a nursing student here at Messiah College and I am on the wrestling team here as well. I have always been interested in the medical field and I love to be around people and help to bring them joy in any way that I can and that is why I chose nursing as my major and life plan. I love being in the nursing program and have already learned so much. On the other side of my time, I have been wrestling for over 14 years and love it more than ever.

Balancing both nursing and wrestling is not easy, I have to constantly be aware of my time and understand how important it is. There are many sacrifices that I have to make so that I can pursue nursing as well as enjoy the sport of wrestling. Specifically, I have to make scheduled times to do all those activities that I chose to do. For instance, if I have a test coming up in a week, I make sure to set aside 3 hours a day into my daily schedule up until the test. This is so I know that I am getting the studying that I need and not doing other activities in place of that time. Another aspect that helps me balance my hectic schedule is making priorities. I find that doing the things that matter the most before doing other activities allows me to benefit the most. Balancing my schedule comes down to prioritizing, scheduling, and making sacrifices based on those aspects.

Even through all the busyness and running around I still find many benefits in being on the wrestling team here at Messiah. I find that the team is a great support system for my faith, academics, and personal life. The team allows me to not only lean on God but also have a support system of friends and family that care for me as a person and who care about my well-being. It also gives me a sense of being part of something bigger than myself; instead of it just being me, I have a role in a large group that affects outcomes and can make a difference. Correlating with that, I feel like I can bring many important aspects to the team. I bring my own opinions and views, work ethic, joy, and love that help make up the team along with everyone else’s personal ideas and aspects. Those are the benefits that I find to being on a sports team and still being in the nursing program. Nursing is tough and it takes a lot of work; wrestling is tough and takes a lot of work, but putting in the time and effort now will pay off in the long run. Also, relying on God in everything I do is one thing that I follow to the best of my ability because I know if I rely on him, I will benefit and have the most success that I can.

Photo: Josiah pins his opponent to the ground.

NCAA Sweet 16

The Women’s Basketball team advanced to the NCAA Sweet 16 tournament, which unfortunately, was cancelled due to COVID-19. Madison Eich ‘22 plays guard on the team.

This past fall, the American Volleyball Coaches Association recognized Mary Underman ’21 as an Honorable Mention All-American.

Advice for Student Athletes

By Alley Sell ‘21

Balancing being a nursing student as well as a student athlete is not easy by any means, but it is very rewarding. The support I receive from my classmates, professors, and teammates helps me stay motivated in my studies and in the pool. Some advice I have for other student nursing athletes is to make sure you are eating healthy and getting enough rest, because it does get exhausting having so much on your plate. When times get stressful, mental health is essential to staying focused and thriving - especially because you are constantly studying.

God knows you are capable of many things, and you should know that too.

Photo: Alley Sell flies across the water during a swim competition.


Kenya Medical Mission Trip

By Faith Beattie ‘21

I had the wonderful opportunity this past summer to serve as a nursing student in Kijabe, Kenya with CURE International, a faith-based non-profit organization that manages charitable hospitals worldwide. From atop the Great Rift Valley, which stretches from Mozambique to Lebanon, AIC CURE International Hospital cares for children across East Africa who are suffering from a broad spectrum of acquired and congenital conditions, including clubfoot, rickets, burn contractures, and osteomyelitis. The AIC CURE International Hospital was Africa’s first orthopedic pediatric teaching hospital for children with disabilities and is now a 30-bed inpatient facility and outpatient clinic that welcomes students at all levels of training to serve patients and learn from local and visiting providers across the African continent and the globe.

Over my three weeks in Kijabe as a visiting nursing student, my time was spread over the inpatient ward, in the PACU, and with a mobile clinic. My time in the ward consisted of assisting nurses with hourly rounding, vital signs, medication administration, wound care, and admissions and discharges. During this time, I was blessed to care for and develop relationships with many children and their families, who had often traveled far distances to seek the specialized care they needed. The PACU was also kept full by the infants and children who had just received a range of orthopedic and cleft-lip-and-palate surgeries. Caring for these patients post-op, having just observed their life-changing operations, was a special wonder. I then ended my time on a four-day mobile clinic traversing across western Kenya! While on the road, we set up clinics in three towns - Kisumu, Kitale, and Eldoret. In church bathrooms and public hospitals, we offered orthopedic consultations, wound care and casting for children with clubfoot and rickets, and follow-ups for patients who had been discharged weeks or months ago from AIC CURE. The resources found in the hospital and on the mobile clinic were sparse, but the spirit of joy embodied by all of the health care workers was full.

Whether I was changing a wound dressing in a dimly lit bathroom that had just become a place of healing, singing worship songs in Kiswahili with mothers and their children, or taking a child for a walk around the grounds, my love for global health and medical missions grew.

Throughout my experiences, I learned how good work can be done with so few resources, how important it is to provide access to primary and specialized healthcare in all places, and just how significantly education can improve quality of life for an individual, their family, and their society. As the Lord continues to grow my faith and mature my passion for global health, I am excited to see what future opportunities are in store!

Creating a cast at the mobile clinic

Photo: Faith standing outside the AIC CURE International Hospital in Kijabe, Kenya.


Several of the Messiah nursing students spending some recreational time during the Zambia Senior Practicum course. Watch Amelia Budd ’20 discuss her faith journey through this valuable learning experience.


Messiah nursing students enjoyed their time in Thailand for their Senior Practicum course. Please read the blog to learn more about this wonderful opportunity.

Study Abroad Experience In Jerusalem

By Bryce Woland ‘22

This past fall I had the opportunity to study abroad in Jerusalem at Jerusalem University College: Institute of Holy Land Studies. I had the opportunity to take classes in biblical history and geography, Jewish literature, the politics of the Israel and Palestine, and Arabic. The biblical history and geography course included multiple field experiences that allowed me to travel around Israel and Jordan, and see sites that make up the context of the biblical story, such as Mt. Carmel where Elijah fought the prophets of Ba’al in 1 Kings 18 and En Gedi where David hid from Saul in 1 Samuel 24. Living in Jerusalem allowed me to interact with the honor-shame culture of the Middle East, which is based heavily on defining individuals based on their appearances and actions and whether they are culturally appropriate or not.

Daily life included going to class on campus or traveling to Bethlehem for Arabic. If I was not in class, then I was probably out exploring the many coffee shops of the city or wandering through the markets of the Old City, which was only a five-minute walk from campus. The Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Western Wall, and the Dome of the Rock, holy sites of the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic faiths respectively, were also very close to campus. On Friday nights, everyone on campus would celebrate the beginning of Shabbat by gathering together for a meal to begin the day of rest, which is still practiced in Jewish homes today all over Israel and the world. I also volunteered at a school in the West Bank in Beit Jala, which is a sister city to Bethlehem. The school is run by the Assemblies of God and is one of the few schools operated by Protestants in the West Bank, the rest being Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, or run by the government. This experience provided me with the opportunity to develop my cross-cultural communication skills as I would attempt to communicate with them in very broken Arabic and they talked with me in the English that they had learned so far. Getting to interact with them was always the highlight of my week as each was another opportunity to see the love of God moving in and through the hearts of the teachers and students at the school.

The pace of life in Jerusalem was much slower than that of the United States. On a typical day, my first class was not until one o’clock in the afternoon, which meant not having to rush from one place to another while trying to get everything done. Sitting in the garden on campus was one of my favorite things to do on those mornings. This is where my faith grew the most during my time abroad as I was able to spend quality time with the Lord in this space free from distractions and busyness.

Seeing biblical sites and studying the language and culture of the Bible was impactful, but communing with God day after day in the garden was the place where He changed my heart in ways that I never could have imagined.
Bryce standing in the ruins of Hippus/Susita, a 3rd century Roman city, overlooking the Sea of Galilee in the Golan Heights.

Photo: Students hiking at En Gedi; the Dead Sea pictured in the background.

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Undergraduate Class of 2019

Summa cum Laude

  • Gabrielle Lee Bornman
  • Maggie Faith Carbaugh

Magna cum Laude

  • Tabitha Adel
  • Rebecca Carol Barrows
  • Megan Jean Cornman
  • Brooke A. Crowley
  • Sierra Lynn Kirsch
  • Danielle Marie McGowan
  • Elizabeth MacKenzie Muchmore
  • Imogen Magdalen Rain Olson
  • Shelby Denae Stouffer

Cum Laude

  • Alexandria Kaylyn Cummings
  • Ajali Rochelle Cunningham
  • Eric Faught
  • Jenna Katherine Harmon
  • Kylee Nicole Kidwell
  • Shelby Faith Landes
  • Olivia Brooke Lorson
  • Sarah Ann Miller
  • Molly Katherine Morin
  • Katie Marie Moyer
  • Hannah Renae Ramey
  • Kaitlyn A. Sechrist
  • Kierra Nicole Smith
  • Madeleine Stott Smith
  • Blake Frasca Stock
  • Natalie Ann Toburen

College Honors Program

  • Tabitha Adel Elizabeth
  • MacKenzie Muchmore

Top Photo (L-R): Brooke Crowley, Faculty Award for Excellence in Nursing; Danielle McGowan, Christy Stark Smith Award; Sierra Kirsch, Harry and Nancy Preis Endowed Scholarship Award; Rebecca Barrows, PSNA Award for Leadership

Bottom Left: Gabrielle Bornman, Academic Excellence in Nursing Award

Bottom Right: Emily Ransil received the Joshua Award for Courage and Strength. She died on September 3, 2019.

Class of 2019 Brunch & Pinning Pictures


From the Coordinator of the MSN and CAGS

By Louann Zinsmeister, PhD, RN, CNE

“See, I am doing a new thing! Now it springs up; do you not perceive it? I am making a way in the wilderness and streams in the wasteland.” – Isaiah 43:19

This scripture verse reflects how change is ongoing in the master’s degree in nursing and graduate nursing certificates at Messiah. With the increasing interest in certificates, our Post-Master’s Certificate in Nursing Education (CAGS-NE) and Nursing Administration (CAGS-NA) have been revised and now include 12 – 13 credits of both didactic and clinical practicum courses and can be accomplished over two semesters. New for this year are two post-BSN certificate programs in nursing education and nursing management and leadership. These post-BSN certificates can be accomplished in two semesters. Courses taken for post-BSN certificates can be used toward a MSN-NE or MSN-NA.

We continue to offer a Master’s Degree in Nursing - Nurse Educator (MSN-NE), a Master’s Degree in Nursing - Nursing Administration (MSN-NA), and a RN-MSN pathway for nurse educator and for nursing administration. The RN-MSN pathway allows associate degree and diploma nurses to accelerate past the BSN and graduate with a MSN. With the impending nursing faculty shortage across the country, graduates of the MSN-NE have been quite successful in acquiring employment as nurse educators immediately after graduation. Our MSN-NA graduates benefit from a curriculum that prepares them in both graduate level nursing scholarship and clinical expertise and provides them with a strong business and leadership foundation. We are so grateful to God for the continued development and success of the MSN programs at Messiah College

A few noteworthy events occurred this year. Abby (Wade) Schmuck (MSN-NE, 2019) and Claire (Carbonetto) Jones (DNP-FNP, 2021) were selected as recipients of the Harry and Nancy Preis Endowed Scholarship for Graduate Nursing. May 2020, marks the fifth graduating class of MSN students. The graduates include: Erin Anderson, Liz Biddle-Zabawa, Juliana Frederick, Jillian Sisson, Valerie (Heisey) Steinweg, and Jen (Ranck) Wagner. As mentioned previously, many of our MSN – Nurse Educator students already are working in nurse educator roles. Messiah College continues to produce MSN graduates with sought after skills for fulfilling the need for qualified nurse educators in both academia and clinical practice settings across a variety of geographical areas.

The MSN program provides flexible, quality online graduate nursing education for nurses who want to become nurse educators or nursing administrators. The need and demand for qualified nurse educators continues to increase. In addition, the MSN-Nursing Administration track offers graduate nursing education for nurses who want to pursue a career path of leadership and service to others in an area of nursing administration.

The MSN-Nurse Educator and new Nursing Administration programs can be completed in two or three years for post-baccalaureate nurses. The MSN programs are delivered in an online format and provide an outstanding, quality education for nurses wanting to pursue graduate nursing education.

The new Post-BSN certificate programs provide an option for anyone interested in expanding one’s horizons and possibly attending a graduate nursing program in the future. The courses taken in certificate programs can be transferred toward accomplishment of a graduate nursing degree.

If you, your colleagues, or friends are looking for quality, faith-based, masters in nursing education, please do not hesitate to contact us for more information. We would love to tell you how the masters in nursing tracks at Messiah College can help you attain your professional and personal goals.

For additional information about our graduate nursing programs, contact the Graduate Nursing Office at gradnursing@messiah.edu or 717-691-6054.

Congratulations to the 2019 MSN Graduates!

(L-R): Marie Ranselle, Keterly Franken, Kristin Shaub, Abby Schmuck, Holly Freas-Webster; not pictured: Rebekkah Stanko

First Messiah Graduates with a Doctorate of Nursing Practice

By Kristen Slabaugh, DNP, CRNP, CNE, Coordinator of DNP/FNP Program

“I do not consider that I have made it my own. But one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus.” – Philippians 3:13-14

It is hard to imagine that we have finally arrived at the inaugural graduation of our post-BSN to DNP/FNP program, the college’s very first doctoral program and as the first graduates of Messiah University! The first group of students will officially graduate in August 2020 but will participate in the May 2020 graduate commencement ceremony. Ten students will finish this leg of their journey. It has not been an easy road, but the rewards are great!

In the past year, we have officially launched the implementation of ten stellar DNP scholarly projects which are already improving patient outcomes in a variety of settings- college health, federally funded health centers, and outpatient clinics. Additionally, a wide variety of populations are benefitting from the projects- college students, Hispanic women, adults with heart failure, pediatric patients, patients referred for colonoscopy, children with asthma, those with international travel plans, and patients with chronic pain.

The joy of the Lord is found on the road to restoration. The root word for joy means to make glad or rejoice. The special type of joy that comes from the Lord is a constant cause to rejoice! It is not about laughing at jokes or appreciating the weather. Sure, joy is present in those moments, but true joy stems from an inner strengthening of our connection to Him. We do not just do tasks or deeds for the Lord; we live our lives in Him, by His strength, and with Him. He becomes our strength and sustainer. Joy from His strength erases mistakes, guilt, and shame.

Joy shifts our hearts from a position of worry to a position of worship, regardless of the circumstances. It does not fade, change, or disappear based on anything we do or do not do. He is a constant peace and safe harbor in our lives. The road to a doctoral degree is tough, but we are proud to present the first of those who have stayed the course and fought the good fight. Although it feels like the end, it is really just the beginning of a legacy of care as our first graduates go out and impact the world for Jesus. The stress, long hours, confusion, and fear will eventually fade as they become competent, independent practitioners. What they once thought impossible, has now been made possible. May they always go forth with the joy of the Lord that will sustain them all of their days.

NURS 530 From a Distance

By Jillian Sisson, BSN ’15, RN; MSN Cohort ‘20

“Why didn’t you do a graduate program closer to home instead?” This question is a common response when I tell people that I am getting my Master’s in Nursing Education through an online program from Messiah College. I live in Chicago, and there are multiple graduate programs that I could have chosen from within a 15-mile radius. However, I have never once regretted my decision to enroll in Messiah’s program. I graduated with my BSN from Messiah in May of 2015 and moved to Chicago afterwards to begin my career as a pediatric neurosurgery nurse at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago. When I began to look into going back to school, I honestly only considered Messiah’s nursing education program because I knew I would receive a rigorous, well-rounded, high-caliber education from professors who would individualize my education even from a distance.

During the first two years of the program, most aspects were strictly online with minimal clinical hours that needed to be completed in Chicago. In the fall of 2019, I enrolled in NURS 530: Teaching Methods for Clinical Practice in Nursing Education. This is a six-credit course in which you are required to complete 180 clinical hours in academic, clinical, and direct patient care settings. I began my search for clinical sites in April, however, the university that I had a tentative agreement with backed out two weeks into the fall semester. I was left without an academic clinical site which accounted for the greatest majority of clinical hours. I experienced a lot of anxiety and was fearful that I would need to take a leave of absence from the program if I was unable to meet the clinical requirement.

I am still on track to graduate this May all thanks to creativity, God’s grace, and Dr. Zinsmeister and the rest of the faculty at Messiah! I completed my academic clinical hours by using Zoom to attend Messiah College nursing faculty meetings and completing online teaching assignments. I also spent a week at Messiah where I was able to attend classes, teach an undergraduate lecture, participate in undergrad simulations, help to lead clinical experiences, observe advising sessions, and attend meetings. It was a whirlwind of a week where I was fully immersed in academic nursing education. Dr. Zinsmeister and the rest of the nursing faculty were incredibly accommodating, supportive, and helped me to not only fulfill my clinical requirement but also to gain valuable experience as a nurse educator.

My experience in NURS 530 caused me to be even more thankful for the personalized and high-quality education that I am receiving through Messiah’s online graduate program.

NURS 530 Experience: It was not Easy, but It was Worth It

By Juliana Frederick, BSN ’15, RN; MSN cohort ‘20

I told myself as I applied to Messiah College’s MSN: Nurse Educator program, that in the Fall of 2019, my life would need to be calm, uneventful, and stable, since I would be enrolled in NURS 530: Teaching Methods for Clinical Practice in Nursing Education. As most courses in the MSN: Nurse Educator curriculum are three credits, this six-credit clinical course, was not surprisingly, the most difficult of my MSN journey. Although the semester officially started on August 26th, 2019, I had been preparing for the 16-week journey throughout the entire summer. Scheduling clinical time, researching topics for my Capstone project, and preparing for my 2-hour lecture was just the start of the seemingly endless semester. However, now that NURS 530 has come and passed, I reminisce, not only about the struggles the semester brought, but also the limitless knowledge and skills I gained about nursing education, the students I taught and may have influenced, and how much I’ve grown as a person and persevered to achieve my goal.

As I read the 89-page course syllabus in mid-August, I did not believe I could read every book, finish every discussion forum, complete every teaching assignment, or achieve 180 hours of clinical. But somehow, everything was finished by December 21st, 2019 at 11:59pm. Not only was every assignment and clinical hour accomplished, but also looking back, there were several experiences that I would not trade for anything else in the world, and I believe they will help me immensely in my career as a nurse educator. One memorable experience was preparing and teaching a two-hour lecture to senior nursing students in their Critical Care Course. I vividly remember spending hours trying to create the perfect PowerPoint presentation on the topic of Mechanical Ventilation. It was during one of those many hours that I realized that this presentation would have the biggest impact on a group of students thus far in my career.

Knowing that my ability to educate student nurses would not only impact the fifty student nurses sitting in the classroom, but also the thousands of patients the student nurses would care for throughout their careers, is honestly breath-taking.

This realization reaffirmed both the importance of nursing education, and also my calling to this specific aspect of the nursing profession.

Another memorable experience in NURS 530 was shadowing and teaching senior nursing students during their critical care clinical at UPMC Pinnacle Community Osteopathic Hospital. Throughout this clinical experience, I had the opportunity to conduct preconference and postconference, make clinical assignments, educate student nurses on the role of the registered nurse in the critical care environment, and most importantly, facilitate critical thinking throughout the clinical experience. Although I enjoyed refining my teaching skills and learning about educating in the clinical setting, I absolutely loved seeing the students grow throughout the semester in regards to their critical thinking and in their ability to care for patients in a holistic manner. As a result of my experiences teaching in the clinical setting throughout NURS 530, and with the feedback from my preceptors and students, I believe God is calling me to use my education and teach as a clinical instructor for undergraduate nursing students.

I have been incredibly blessed to have experienced the many facets of the nurse educator role within academia and clinical practice throughout NURS 530. Although I have only described two significant experiences, I assure you, they are only the first of many, as evidenced by the 29 pages of anecdotal/reflection notes I submitted at the end of the semester. Not only were the experiences in NURS 530 memorable, but the many individuals that supported me along the way should not be overlooked. Dr. Zinsmeister always pushed me to work harder and smarter, even when I did not think I could go any further. My preceptors, Jeff Stroup, Ashley Bertossi, and Emily Griffith always created great opportunities for learning and were amazing mentors throughout this experience. My classmates, Valerie Steinweg, Jill Sisson, Jen Wagner, Liz Biddle-Zabawa, and Erin Anderson were extremely supportive and always willing to talk one-another down after distressing about our Capstone project or another assignment. And lastly, my family: for always reminding me that it may not be easy, but it will be worth it.

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Carry the Love!

By Sierra Berringer, BSN ’18, RN

In May 2018, I graduated from Messiah College with my Bachelor of Science in Nursing and began a job with the Children’s Hospital of Penn State Hershey Medical Center in July 2018 on the Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Unit. Then in May 2019, the Lord spoke to me 4 times asking me if I would lay down my career in Nursing and sell everything to be a full time missionary. He called me to a mission organization in Huntington Beach, California called Circuit Riders. Our mission fields are the college campuses of America, Europe, and Africa. With a joyful, “Yes!” I began my journey as a full time missionary.

In Circuit Riders, our mission is to save the lost, revive the saved, and train them all. We are desperate to see college students encounter the real Jesus. We fulfill this mission through our annual Carry the Love Tour which is a free two-day event with worship, the gospel, and activation.

Our 2020 tour is halfway over and so far 22,941 high school and college students have gathered around the name of Jesus, 1,877 have fully surrendered their lives to Jesus, and 317 have been healed from physical and/or emotional issues.

My team has been touring up the coast of California. One testimony from our stop in Fresno is about a girl who was already following the Lord but was being held captive by the enemy. A girl on our team saw a picture of her in shackles and duct tape over her mouth. The Holy Spirit told her that this girl was being bound by shame and that the enemy wanted to keep her voice quiet. The girl started crying and said she had TMJ in her jaw and would often be in so much pain that she could not lead worship, and she also had ankle pain that kept her from kneeling down in worship. Our team prayed for her, she felt heat in her jaw and was instantly healed from TMJ and ankle pain. She was dealing with a lot of shame and had 50 scars on her abdomen from previous self harm injuries. When she went to the bathroom, she saw that all of her scars were completely healed, and she was given totally new skin!

Jesus is in abandoned pursuit of our generation, and it is an honor to be the hands & feet on the ground fighting with Him.

Sierra Berringer

Photo: Carry the Love touring group with Circuit Riders

Endless Possibilities

By Brittany Petry MSN, RN BSN ‘11 and MSN ‘17

“For I know the plans I have for you, declares the Lord, “plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you a hope and a future.” – Jeremiah 29: 11

Throughout my life this verse from Jeremiah has brought me hope, peace, and comfort. This verse reminds me that although I do not always have the plan figured out that God does. Jeremiah 29:11 also reminds me that while I do not always understand why things are happening in my life when they are, when certain things are not happening when I think they should, or why events are occurring, that the ultimate purpose that God has for my life is good and that there will be purpose in the events and the processes that took place.

I find myself very blessed to have had the opportunity to not only attend Messiah College once in my life but twice. I first graduated from Messiah College in 2011 with my BSN. After a couple years of work, I started to look at what other opportunities my organization offered. As I looked through various job descriptions I noticed that many of the jobs required a master’s in nursing, without specifying what kind was required. I then started the process of self-reflection. I recognized that I did not desire to become a nurse practitioner nor did I desire to be a CRNA. I did, however, identify that I really enjoyed showing people how to do various things and explain things to others. This realization led me to explore the path of earning my MSN as a nurse educator. Before I took that step, I exchanged many emails asking questions about the program and process and finally decided to take the step. At that particular stage in my life, I knew that for a variety of reasons it was a great time to complete my master’s degree. I also firmly believed that even if I did not use my master’s degree for a number of years, at least I had earned the degree and could step into a new role if the opportunity presented itself. I do not regret making that decision and completing my MSN provides me numerous opportunities that I did not even realize existed.

One of the benefits of nursing is that there are numerous possibilities related to how you can use a nursing degree. I found this to be true of a master’s degree in nursing as well. I am sure that many people think that once you have your master’s degree in nursing as a nurse educator you should automatically step into a role, or already be in a traditional role where a person is using this degree. My personal experience is that you can use your Master’s degree even in a non-traditional way. Although I do not have a traditional nurse educator position at this time, I recognize the many ways that I use my degree. Within the past year, I had the opportunity to educate staff regarding a product conversion with additional required education that will hopefully help the health system that I work for reduce pressure injuries throughout the system. This process included presenting information to multiple staff members from a variety departments, answering questions, and having them fill out pre/post tests and surveys related to the education presented. I also serve on three committees within my current facility and within the health system that I work for where I get to help review policies. One staff member jokingly calls me the “policy queen”. I am also a person that other staff approaches when they have questions. I help orient new staff to our department. I often feel like a resource person for other staff members. I ask a lot of questions and work hard to find the answers not only for myself but also for my co-workers. My operations manager recognizes that I have my master’s degree and often asks me questions related to how I am going to use my advanced degree and uses this knowledge to encourage my professional development by inspiring me to use my advanced degree in various ways. For instance, last year my operations manager nominated me to attend leadership classes that are offered within the organization. She also suggested to our facilities nurse educator that I help complete the training required of all staff that I mentioned earlier. I also like knowing that someday, when I feel like I am ready, I can transition into a more traditional nurse educator role. However, to those who are reading this, remember that you can still be an effective educator and make a difference in ways that do not officially hold a nurse educator title. Additionally, I am greatly encouraged by all the opportunities that are ahead of me because I have earned my Master’s in Nursing as a Nurse Educator. Finally, as my journey continues, I look forward to seeing what God has planned for my future because I believe that He continues to have good plans for me and that He will continue to direct my path for His glory and purposes.

Messiah graduates and retired faculty volunteer at the Beacon Clinical for Health and Hope, Harrisburg, PA. Pictured: Emily Hepler, BSN, RN ’18, Kay Huber, Ph.D., CRNP, Professor Emeriti, Olivia Kimmel, BSN, RN ’17. Not pictured: Emily Doron, BSN, RN ’18. Learn more about Beacon Clinic at beaconclinicpa.org.


Giving to Nursing

between July 1, 2018 and June 30, 2019

The Chatlos Nursing Scholarship Award, The Chatlos Foundation

Dr. Homer C. Hetrick Memorial Scholarship, L.B. Smith Estate Foundation, Inc.

Margaret O. McCormick Endowed Scholarship, McCormick Family Foundation

Janelle Nisly Memorial Scholarship, Wanda E. (Thuma) McDermond ‘75 & Paul W. Nisly

Department of Nursing Designated Fund, The Wells Foundation

Harry and Nancy Preis Endowed Scholarship Fund, The Vanguard Group

Christy Stark Smith Memorial Scholarship Endowment, Wanda E. (Thuma) McDermond ‘75 & Carolyn L. Kreamer

Marilyn L. Smith Endowed Nursing Scholarship, Marilyn L. (Byer) Smith ‘51

Donald & Dorothy Stabler Nursing Scholarship Endowment, Christina A. Albrecht ‘17, Rachel H. (Kidwell) Budd ‘16, The Stabler Foundation

Nursing Education Scholarship in Memory of Peggy S. Walters, Ruth I. Stoll

Wells Nursing Scholarship Endowment, Wanda E. (Thuma) McDermond ‘75

Support Nursing through scholarships!

To give online, visit messiah.edu/give and select Named Endowments under Scholarships and Endowments.


Nurse practitioners, physician assistants, physicians, and hospital-based nurse educators to serve as clinical preceptors AND online adjunct faculty with DNP or Ph.D. degree in nursing preferred for the graduate program in nursing.

For more information, please contact:

Ashley Ringquist, Administrative Assistant and Clinical Coordinator for Graduate Program in Nursing

Phone: 717-691-6054 or Email: aringquist@messiah.edu

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EDITORS: Nancy Frank and Ashley Ringquist. Please send ideas for future editions to njfrank@messiah.edu or aringquist@messiah.edu.