Photo 2016 By: Karina Lara and Sofia Quesada

Photogram - To create a photogram you need to have objects and photo paper. Once you have the desired objects, you place the objects upon the paper and expose it to the enlarger light. Finally, you process it in the chemicals.

1. Exposure to create photogram || 2. Developed photogram

Pinhole Camera - The required parts to create a pinhole camera are a box, rubber bands, a box cutter, tape, a thumbtack, tin foil, photo paper, and a black shutter flap. You will need to place the tin foil on the inside of the box then poke a hole through it using a thumbtack. From there you tape the tin on and tape the flap on the outside of box. Photo paper goes on inside across from tin.

1. Pinhole camera in use || 2. Example of a photo from a pinhole camera

Shutter Speed - For blur use f/stop 8 at a shutter speed of 1/50. For frozen motion use f/stop 4 at a shutter speed of 1/1600.

1. Slow (blur) || 2. Fast (frozen motion)

Aperture - To acquire shallow depth of field (blurry background/clear front) you must use f/stop 2.8. For deep depth of field (completely clear) you use f/stop 16.

1. Shallow Depth of Field requires f/stop 2.8 || 2. Deep Depth of Field requires f/stop 16

3 Point Lighting - To achieve this set up of a circle of light around a model, you need to have two large lamps in front of the model with one lamp behind them.

1. 3 point lighting set up || 2. Photo taken using 3 point lighting.

Storytelling - For storytelling you take different photos that tie together into one story. Once you've shot the photos, you place them on the board and decorate if necessary.

Taking photo then putting on board

Changing Room - This is the first step in processing film, here you transfer the film into the reel. Remember to keep the lights off while doing so.

Changing Room

Reel Canister - This is where you roll the film into the reel. From here you place the reel in a container used to shield it from the light in order to continue to the next step of processing.

1. Rolling film into reel || 2. Film in reel being place in container

Sink Chemical Processing - The first step in chemical processing is pouring D-76 and water into the container. The amount of time that it is in the container is based on the temperature. Agitate once every minute for 30 sec. Once done, pour down drain.

D-76 and water being mixed together.

Stop bath - Next you only place water into the container and agitate it for 30 sec. Once done, pour down drain.

Water in cup being poured into container.

Fixer - The following step is to pour the fixer into the container. Let sit in container for 5 minutes, and agitate for 5 sec. once every minute. This time DO NOT pour down sink, pour into special fixer collecting jug.

Fixer being poured into containing.

Hurricane Washer/ PhotoFlo - Now you remove the reel from the container and place it into the hurricane washer. Once that is done, you then place the reel into the photoflo.

1. Hurricane washer || 2. Reel being placed in photoflo.

Dryer - The last step is to let the remaining photoflo drip into photoflo container. From there you take the film out of the reel, then place a weight clip at the bottom of the film. Once that is done, place into the dryer.

Film being placed into dryer.

Sleeves - Once the film is dry, you will need to place it in a sleeve. You must wear gloves when handling the film to ensure you do not mess up the film. First, you cut the film to fit in the sleeves then slip them inside.

Film being placed into sleeves.

Contact Sheets - In order to create a contact sheet, you will need to place your sleeve on top of your paper then expose it to the light. Once developed, you have your contact sheet.

1. Sleeve being prepared for exposure. || 2. Developed contact sheet

Negative Carriers - A negative carrier carries the film negatives that you previously placed into the sleeves. When wanting to print a photo, you would place the negative into the carrier then into the enlarger to expose the paper.

Negative carrier being placed in enlarger.

Grain Focuser - In order to ensure that the photo you are printing comes out clear, you will need to focus it. First, turn on the enlarger to view the image. Next, using the enlarger paper you use a grain focuser to get the best result.

1. Focus paper || 2. Grain focuser being used on focus paper

Test Strips - To adjust the exposure time and ensure the photo is focused, you will need to make a test strip. To do so, you will expose the test strip piece by piece by ever 5 seconds.

A test strip being exposed.

Enlarger - Here is what is used to project and expose the photos in order to print them.


Contrast Filters - A contrast filter is used to ensure that your photos have good contrasts (blacks, whites, grays)

Contrast filter being placed in enlarger.

Speed Easel - A speed easel is used to ensure that your photo paper is in place and down flat.

Speed Easel.

RC Paper - This is the paper that is used to print the photos.

RC Paper

Burn and Dodge - Burning is increasing the exposure time to allow the photo area to get darker. To burn you cover the rest of the photo to ensure that it does not completely get dark, but leave the area that is too light exposed in order to expose it more. Dodging is decreasing the exposure time to lighten the photo area. To dodge, you use the either of the tools below and quickly wave it over the area that is to dark to lessen the exposure.

Burn and Dodge tools

Darkroom Chemicals: D-76, stop bath, fixer, wash (Process in that order) These are the chemicals in the darkroom that you will use to process your prints.

From back to front: wash, fixer, stop bath, D-76

Squeegee and Dryer - Once you have finished the chemical process, you will need to squeegee off all the excess liquid. From there, you insert your print into the dryer. Do not push the print in, simply allow the dryer to take it. (Despite photos below, do not place test strips inside dryers!)

1. Squeegee || 2. Dryer

Dry Mounting - For dry mounting, you will need to tack the tissue onto the board as well as the photo, do not tack actual photo. Once tacking is done, place board in oven. Finally, when the oven is done, let the board cool by stacking books on top to stop the board from bending.

1. Tacking to board || 2. Board in oven.

Camera - To load film into the camera you will need to pull on the lever to pop open the back. To fix the aperture and settings you turn the knob. For the focus and zoom you twist the black part before/around lens. Lastly, to unload film you have to press the rewind button then turn the lever clockwise until tension is released. From there simply pop open once more.

1. Opening camera || 2. Fixing aperture+ISO || 3. Focus/Zoom being || 4. Rewind button

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