Parkinson's Disease MANKAMAL SINGH

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement, chiefly affecting middle-aged and elderly people. It is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

How Parkinson´s occurs

The disorder affects several regions of the brain.Especially an area called substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.Often the first symptom of Parkinson disease is trembling or shaking of a limb.Typically the tremor beings in one side of the body.Parkinson´s disease occurs when nerve cells in an area of the brain that controls movement become impaired and/or dies.

Where Parkinson´s disease is located.

To date, two genes responsible for familial Parkinson's disease have been identified: one is the alpha-synuclein gene located in the long arm of chromosome 4, and the other is the parkin gene located in the long arm of chromosome 6.

Pheno/Geno type of a person whom is affected by the Parkison´s

  • Six mutations met the consortium's criteria for being proven pathogenic. The frequency of the common LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was 1% of patients with sporadic PD and 4% of patients with hereditary PD; the frequency was highest in the middle east and higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe. The risk of PD for a person who inherits the LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was 28% at age 59 years, 51% at 69 years, and 74% at 79 years. The motor symptoms (eg, disease severity, rate of progression, occurrence of falls, and dyskinesia) and non-motor symptoms (eg, cognition and olfaction) of LRRK2-associated PD were more benign than those of idiopathic PD.

How to diagnose parkinson´s disease

There is no objective test to make a definitive diagnosis of parkinson´s disease.Instead, a doctor takes a careful medical history and performs a thorough neurological examination,looking in particular fir two or more of the cardinal signs to be present.

How to treat Parkinson´s disease

Medicine´s such as,levodopa and dopamine agonists.This is the most common treatment for parkinson´s disease.

Can Parkinson´s be passed down from genes?

Most cases of the disease are not considered to have a genetic basis. There are however a small percentage of people that get Parkinson's disease because of a specific gene they inherited from their parents.

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Mankamal Singh

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