"The Butler" Project Crystal garza 2nd period

Freedom Riders pt.1

On May 4, 1961, 13 African-Americans launched the Freedom Rides, a bus to protest segregation in interstate bus terminals. They were recruited by the congress of Racial Equality (U.S civil rights group). The African-American Freedom Riders tried to use "whites-only" restrooms, restaurants, vice versa, etc. The group met violence from the white protestors along the route, setting the bus on fire with African-Americans inside. Even though they got arrested & got hurt badly, more continued to stand up for themselves and eventually more went to different transports (buses,airplanes etc)

Freedom Riders pt. 2

The riders in the Trailways bus were also assaulted by Anniston whites. They managed to get to Birmingham where they encountered a larger mob who beat them with baseball bats, lead pipes and bicycle chains. The nationally televised attack strengthened the resolve of the Freedom Riders. Many of the riders were convicted and fined but they refused to pay and were sentenced 90 days in jail. The freedom Rides illuminated the courage of black and white youth. The Freedom Rides also inspired rural southern blacks to embrace civil disobedience as a strategy for regaining their civil rights.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

On June 6,1963, President John F. Kennedy urged the nation to take action toward guaranteeing equal treatment of every American regardless of race. In 1964 congress passed public law. The provisions of this civil rights act forbade discrimination on the basis of sex as well as race in hiring,promoting and firing. In subsequent years, Congress expanded the act and also passed additional legislation aimed at bringing equality to African-Americans such as voting rights.

Civil Rights Act pt. 2

Passage of the act was not easy. In early 1964, House supporters overcame the rules Committee obstacle by threatening to send the bill to the floor without committee approval. Later republicans were convinced to support the bill.

Malcolm X

Born on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska, Malcolm X was a black nationalist leader who served as a spokesman for the Nation of Islam during the 1950s and 60s. Malcolm X exhorted blacks to cast off the shackles of racism "by any means necessary", including violence. Due to Earl Little's civil rights activism, his family was subjected to frequent harassment from white supremacist groups including the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and one of its splinter factions, the Black Legion. In fact, Malcolm X had his first encounter with racism before he was even born.

Malcolm X pt.2

By the early 1960s, Malcolm X had emerged as a leading voice of radicalized wing of the Civil Rights Movement, presenting an alternative to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr's vision of a racially integrated society achieved by peaceful means. Malcolm X was very optimistic about the prospects for peaceful resolution to Americas race problems. Later he was assassinated

Vietnam War

The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the communist regime of North Vietnam and its southern allies. The war began in 1954 (though conflict stretched back to mid 40s). More than 3 million people( including 58,000 Americans) were killed in Vietnam War; more than half were Vietnamese civilians. The Soviet Union and China poured weapons, supplies, and advisers into the North which in turn provided support, political direction and regular troops for the campaign in the South. The costs and casualties of the growing war proved too much for the U.S to bear, and U.S. combat units were withdrawn by 1973.

Vietnam War pt.2

The human costs of long conflict were harsh for all involved. Until 1995, Vietnam released the official estimates of war deaths. In 1982 the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washinton D.C inscribed with the names of 57,939 members of U.S armed forces who had died or were missing as a result of the war.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Was born January 15, 1929. He attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating high school at age 15; he received the B. A. Degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had graduated. In 1957 he was elected president of the southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization civil rights movement. King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest and action. He led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world. Inspiring his " Letter from a Birmingham jail", a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr pt.2

Martin directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, "I have a Dream" where he spoke of people of colored skin coming together with non-colored people, joining hands and being equal. He was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by time magazine in 1963;and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure. On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis Tennessee where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assassinated.

Black Panthers

Black panthers was a party for self-defense bigoted "black", or "negro" or "colored" humans towards their Caucasian counterparts, the Ku klux Klan (KKK). Their organization was originally intended to promote civil rights for black Americans, but quickly deteriorated into terrorism, violence, and acts of intimidation in an attempt to become what they vociferously accused "whitey" (ALL white people) of being. Government oppression initially contributed to the growth of the party as killings and arrests of panthers increased support for the party within the black community and on the broad political left.

Black Panthers pt.2

The history of the Black Panther Party is controversial. Scholars have characterized the Black Panther Party as the most influential black movement organization of the late 1960s, and the "strongest link between domestic Black Liberation Struggle and global opponents of American imperialism." Other commentators have described the party as more criminal than political, characterized by "defiant posturing over substance".


Was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s, following a break-in at the democratic national committee (DNC) headquarters in 1972 and President Richard Nixons administration attempted cover-up of its involvement.

Watergate pt.2

The prowlers were connected to President Richard Nixons reelection campaign, and they had been caught while attempting to wiretap phones and steal secret documents. While historians are not sure whether Nixon knew about the watergate espionage operation before it happened, he took steps to cover it up afterwards, raising "hush money" for the burglars, trying to stop the FBI from investigating the crime. After his role in the Watergate conspiracy had finally come to light, the president resigned. Although Nixon was never prosecuted, the Watergate scandal changed American politics forever, leading many Americans to question their leadership and think more critically about the presidency.

Soul Train

An American musical variety television program which aired in 1970s. The show primarily featured performances by R&B, soul, dance/pop, disco, etc.

Soul train pt.2

Many African-Americans were involved including famous people like James brown, Stevie Wonder, etc. As more and more colored people joined the television series, the more popular it became. Until finally the airing stopped in 2006.


A policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race.

Apartheid pt.2

After the National Party gained power in South Africa in 1948, it's all-white government immediately began enforcing existing policies of racial segregation under a system of legislation that it called apartheid. Under apartheid, nonwhite South Africans would be forced to live in separate areas from whites and use separate public facilities, and contact between the two groups would be limited.

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